To what extent do domestic issues limit
Hobbes, like realism, deems that everyman has a natural tendency o be selfish and will hurt anyone to get what they want. Due to states being man- made, all states within a system are rational actors, pursuing their self-interest, striving to attain as many resources as possible and build their military power. From the realist perspective, to exercise regional leadership a country would have high material capabilities, be recognizes by their neighbors as a regional leader and fully accept that they are a regional leader – by taking on further responsibilities.
From the perspective of all international relation theories and the perspectives of many academics, the characteristics to exert global leadership are much harder to define. The realist would consider material capableness such as ‘hard power’ necessary to be able to exercise global leadership. This essay will also define a global leader as being able to wield Soft power, accept the responsibilities that arise from being a global leader and be recognizes as having global leadership by other countries all around the world.
The other issues to consider is the definition of an emerging power; which is owed toxic O’Neill, a British economist, who coined Brick, the acronym that stands or Brazil, Russia, India, and China In Building Better Global Economic Brick (2001). O’Neill Identified that over the next 10 years, the weight of the Brick will increase raising important issues about their global economic impact of fiscal and monetary policy . The initial impact of O’Neill was minor. However, the effect of the Brick changed in 2009 as they assembled in the Brick Summit in Russia.
They agreed to cooperate in many areas and specifically to demand more influence in global government. The summit meant that suddenly, they were presenting themselves as a political force on the world stage. Two of the Brick, China and India, will be primarily considered throughout this essay. The logic of choosing china and India out of the four Brick is largely due to their reliance on military power, its recent growth figures and the Goldman Cash monthly BRICK report by Wilson, Burg and Stacy (2011).
Due to the question being answered from a realist perspective Brazil has primarily been excluded as Its foreign policy relies heavily on non-military power. The concept of Russia?a traditional major power In the nineteenth century and presumed superpower between 1945 and 1990?as an emerging power Is distinctly odd from a legalist perspectives. China As China has changed over the last few centuries, countries around the world have also had to adapt.
China’s rise and new power has added an increased pressured on other global leaders such as the United States. Although China’s rise still continues to receive a great deal of attention, we must remember that China is still a developing country – that has to deal with countless domestic Issues. Three domestic Issues will degradation. An in-depth analysis of all the domestic issues in China is not attainable in this essay. Legitimacy Literature and surveys undertake by academics and organizations such as Chemung
Wang, David Bushman and the German Institute of Global and Area Studies have repeatedly shown that the legitimacy of the Communist Party (COP) has been predominantly based on the economic growth of the economy. Politics and strategies which have been introduced have needed to ensure the continuation of China’s high economic growth levels. More specifically, trying to ensure that all Chinese citizens are positively affected by such growth has had to be undertaken – which is viewed to be a very complicated and delicate balance the Government has to make. When legitimacy is derived from a transient issue (e. Economic growth) the country in question treads on a very unstable path, because if China’s economy enters an enduring period of economic stagnation, public confidence in the regime must declined. This issues does not categorically limit China’s regional leadership as they has still been able to gain high material capabilities and be recognizes by their neighbors as a regional leader. Notwithstanding the limitation this domestic issue has set for the Spec’s ability to introduce any policy or change strategies; the ability of China to wholly accept their regional leadership has been greeted.
The extent to which this issue limits China’s global leadership has been far greater. The Government are fearful of triggering changes in economic growth – thereby introducing any new policies or strategies to improve the country but potentially slow down growth (e. G. Environmental policies) has been a very delicate subject. In order to be recognizes as exercising global leadership China would need to take on the responsibility of negotiating with other global leaders to form agreed policies and strategies.
The government are anxious to introduce new, potentially Western, elicits and strategies which have been agreed by international countries as they could provoke public anger and slow the levels of economic. Social Stability This public angry mentioned above, social unrest and stability has always been in the forefront of the generation leaders. It is argued above and from scholars such as Shirk (2007) that China’s leaders are obsessed with what they call ‘social stability.
It can be argued that this issue has been imperative from predominantly the late sass due to the Attainment trauma of 1989 and the other regimes they have watched collapses. The concept of social stability has been even more prominent in recent years because of the rise of China’s economic growth has created an improvement in the quality of life for many citizens; which has directly resulted in an expansion of the opportunities for cultural expression of an increasingly educated and middle, newly communicated cosmopolitan class. This issue can be argued as a huge domestic issue for the Government.
This is in stark contrast to our other democratic Brick, India and Brazil, where the rise of the middle classes has actually been constructive. For China, it has been and will continue to be very difficult to keep the choices of a well-educated class quiet especially with access to the internet and information technology. With relation to technology and censoring, when the better educated middle class are exposed to what is taking place around them, they could potentially realism the problems within their country, thereby creating unrest.
With growth and the level of environmental damage, these new voices in China will soon be exercised. China is suffering from an imbalance in social and economic development between different regions, between urban and rural areas, and in income generation. About 62 percent of the population lives in the rural areas but it is predicted that by 2035 almost 70 percent of the population will live in urban areas. The urban income on average is three times that of rural incomes. Naturally, this evident gap between the urban class and the poor farmers will cause tensions amongst the citizens.
Around 160,000 incidents are reported annually on issues of labor unrest and land disputes. As multimillionaire businesses man Lie Sinful stated to a New York Times Journalist – “in a one-party country everything looks peaceful, but when there’s a problem, it’s a big problem”. However, the extent to which the domestic issues of social stability limits the regional leadership of China is minor. From the realist perspective, it could be argued that the social unrest within China means their material capabilities are hindered due to their citizens not co-operating in combat.
But the ability of the Government to control the publicity of any social unrest is extraordinary. To this day, the citizens in rural areas have not heard of the Attainment trauma. As a result, China is able to perform as a regional leader dealing with regional responsibilities. Neighboring countries are likely to be aware of the social unrest in China as the leaders have often publicly expressed concern; but they understand that it is relatively controlled and will not overthrow the regime.
The extent to which this domestic issue of social stability limits the global leadership of China is contentious from the realist perspective. China was ranked highest on the Composite Index of National Capability (ZINC (2007); which confirms their material capabilities. However, to be able to exercise global leadership there is more involved than Just material capabilities. ‘Soft power’ was also on the list of attributes needed to e a global leader. ‘Soft power’ is a term conceived and elaborated by Joseph Nee (2004).
In his literature ‘The Future of Power’ he states that “soft power ‘rests heavily on… Culture, political values and its formal policies’. China has invested billions into increasing their soft power capabilities; but unfortunately soft power has mainly increased within its region of East Asia, not in the global arena. Soft power grows when societies act with the global arena in mind and predominantly in democratic countries. According to Nee, “soft power will not be accomplished through top-down schemes which foreigners are likely to interpret as propaganda”.
For China to be have global leadership the social problems which are causing the instability would need to be addressed first. Owing to the large amount of attention China has received recently, the Western countries fear China’s ‘hard power’ but not so much the ‘soft power’. However, some realist scholars acknowledge the rise of ‘soft power’ from China as they fear that the anti-Western and anti-liberal values of China will encroach their democracies. The soft power of China has already had a huge impact on other regions (e. G. African) and can potentially impact the stable Western democracies.
As a result of this analysis it is clear that the issue of social stability in China has not limited their ability to exercise regional leadership; but has in some contexts limited their global leadership role. Environmental Degradation Moreover, regardless of growing awareness in China about the importance of the life. The rapid growth and insufficient amounts of regulation and policy regarding environmental degradation has meant that pollution has been a serious issues in most cities. China was ranked 14th when a report by the World Health Organization WHO) looked into the amount of pollution in outdoor air in 2009.
Similarly, the top air polluter in the world according to WHO (2010) is Pakistan, which is part of the New Eleven (IN 1). India was ranked ninth in 2009/11. In contrast, Brazier’s approach to environmental degradation is different from all the other emerging powers and is well-placed to position itself as an ’emerging environmental power’8. In China, 35 percent of the total country has been harmed by acid rain and the same percentage of people breathe polluted air in the towns and cities. 70 percent of energy produced n China is from coal – the least environmental-friendly method.
Water pollution and shortage has also become a problem. The domestic issues of the environment limits China’s regional leadership because neighboring countries will not accept their environmental conditions spilling over and effecting neighboring countries. China has supposed for many years that because it is still a developing country it should be exempt from the type of environmental standards presented. China has always be understood to be a promoter of foreign policy issues – but in regards to global environment – policy negotiations have been sparse.
The domestic challenge of environmental degradation has resulted in China not being recognizes as exercising global leadership. China has not been willing to take on global responsibilities of cooperating and negotiating with regards to the environment. India India, is also an emerging power, but in stark opposition to China – it is a democracy. Wilson and Portmanteaus in 2003 wrote ‘Dreaming with the Brick’ where they explained how they thought India was going to be the most successful out of all the Brick. Similarly, Marital Marginal (Reader in International Political Economy at the
University of Cambridge) states that ‘Indian’s rise has placed it on near great power status’. While growth continues in India, they also face many domestic issues, three of which are discussed: low infrastructure, high inequality and communal tension. Low Infrastructure The infrastructure of all the Brick has improved notably in recent years, but Indian’s infrastructure investment needs to accelerate in the coming years to prevent it from constraining future growth rates. There has been decades of underinvestment which has left the country short of vital networks such as roads, airports, railways and energy.
In the Global Competitiveness Report (2012-2013)10, India was ranked 84th out of 144 countries for infrastructure. The report was very critical of Indian’s insufficient transport and energy organization. The domestic issue of infrastructure limits Indian’s regional leadership as it effects the ability to mobile and transport their military and trade efficiently both nationally and internationally. If a neighboring country was to invade India, the military capability would be visible, but the manipulation and transportation of combatants and armory would be difficult.
Likewise, the ability to transport freight between cities and into cities is effected by low infrastructure. This has an impact on regional neighbors recognizing India as a regional leader. However, poor infrastructure has not limited Indian’s material capabilities. Due to this, India can be considered to have a degree of global Furthermore, Indian’s poor infrastructure has had a great impact on the inequalities of the rural and urban. The urban, middle-classes are developing faster than the rural citizens. When looking at the average national statistics of the distribution of wealth, India was values at 33. N the Gin Index in 2010; which implies a rather equal distribution of wealth. When statistics look further into Indian’s states the results are shockingly different. The states which comprise of all the innovators and businesses are wealthy. The states which are very poor tend to be rural. We observe this considerable contrasts between the urban and rural. The government needs to address this issue soon, by bringing the impoverished citizens into the mainstream system thereby giving everyone equal opportunities. From a realist perspective the high level of inequality in India would not limit its regional leadership.
India continues to have high material capabilities even though the country has a high level of inequality. Its neighboring countries in South Asia are aware that India has a high level of material capability and are prepared to accept India as being able to exercise regional leadership. However, the domestic challenge of high inequality in India has to be addressed sharpies – as a result, this could hinder Indian’s ability to take on the responsibilities require when exercising both regional and global leadership. The Government needs to address the domestic issues of social inequalities before even engendering tackling global issues.
Communal Tensions The final domestic challenge which will be analyses is the issues of communal tension. When the phrase communal tensions is uttered – instantly India comes to the minds of many academics. India contends with a very troublesome neighborhood; in addition to dealing with usually politically or religiously instigated communal tensions which flares up and regularly bursts into riots, causing death. Related to this communal tension is the problem of the Salamis terrorist and the Insulates, a Moist insurgency.
The radical, far left insurgency have recently operated ND spread along the eastern states; compromising of various groups. The vision of separate group continues to be bounded together and the Indian state by its unitary response of violence and repression is not only guilty of a blinkered understanding of the situation but is in danger of perpetuating the culture of violence in large parts of the country 1 . Clearly, this domestic issue limits Indian’s ability to exercise regional and global leadership as the country has to manage and suppress the communal tensions and various groups before considering regional and international problems.
From the realist perspective – India would still have reasonably high levels of material capabilities if the communal tensions broke out; not limiting their regional and global leadership. This domestic issue of communal tension could however limit Indian’s ability to exercise soft power. India is a democracy and should be trying to resolve the issues concerned with high levels of communal tension. Exercising soft power by India will not be high enough to have an impact on other countries if top down government is suppressing opinions. It is obvious that not all domestic issues in country limit both regional and global adhering.
Some domestic issues such as the low infrastructure in India might potentially only effect regional leadership. But more frequently a domestic issues will the domestic issue of legitimacy does not limit China’s regional leadership; but the issues of environmental degradation and social stability can be argued in favor of limiting regional leadership. However, none of the domestic challenges assessed can limit China’s material capabilities regionally – resulting in China having strong regional leadership. On the contrary, all of the domestic issues addressed can be aid to limit China’s global leadership.
Hard power is evident in China – but the use of soft power is yet to be seen. Indian’s regional leadership seems promising given its size compared to its neighbors. It would certainly suggest that it would be regionally dominate and hold a high degree of regional leadership. But in fact the reality is that it exercises very limited hegemony in its region. Even its nuclear statutes which you would imagine would set it aside from the others is challenged largely by Pakistan, who is also has a nuclear capability. The low infrastructure, inequalities and nominal tensions all limits Indian’s regional leaderships.