Thirteen Colonies Essay

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Thirteen Colonies

The Puritans received a charter for land north of Plymouth. Unlike the Pilgrims, the Puritans arrived with food. They were prepared and did well their first winter. ‘4 The Puritans wanted to simplify the Church of England. They did not believe that religion should have fancy ceremonies. Puritans thought that all church members should be equal. The Puritans set up their own church in the new colony and made strict rules that everyone in Massachusetts had to follow, even if they were not Puritans. 95 Over time, people left Massachusetts to start other colonies.

In 1636, small groups of people moved to the Connecticut River Valley. Roger Williams, a Puritan minister, founded the colony of Rhode Island. By 1679, the colonists in New Hampshire had broken away from Massachusetts to form a new colony. Making a Living ‘6 The northerners quickly learned that their new home was not very good for farming because the soil was rocky and the winters were cold and long. The colonists could only grow enough food to feed their own families. The people living in New England had to find other ways to earn money. 7 In the early years, most colonists ivied In towns along the ocean and the men became shipbuilders, traders, and fishermen. The inland forests provided both wood for building ships and a variety of fur-bearing animals, which helped fur traders grow rich. Fishermen in the port towns provided food for the colonists of the region. The Middle Colonies Settling the Middle Colonies ‘1 The Dutch and Swedish settled the first middle colony. The Dutch named Its colony New Netherlands (.NET-Rolland). New York City was called New Amsterdam. ‘2 In 1664, King Charles II of England wanted to take over New Netherlands.

He threatened to start a war. The Dutch and Swedish settlers simply gave up the land without a fight. Then, the king gave the land to his brother James, the Duke of York. James split the land Into New York and New Jersey. William Penn owned the other middle colonies, Delaware and Pennsylvania. William Pen’s Woods ‘3 William Penn belonged to the Society of Friends, a religious group known as the Quakers. Quakers thought that all people were equal. They did not believe in fighting. The Quakers were disliked In England, so Penn wanted to leave. E king to repay that debt with land in the New World. In 1681, the king gave him Pen’s Woods, which is now called Pennsylvania. Penn made sure that in Pennsylvania, people had religious freedom. This meant that they did not have to belong to a specific church. Members of any religion could vote or be elected to office. This colony grew to be the center of colonial America. During the late sass, many important events occurred in its capital city of Philadelphia. Bread Basket Colonies 95 The middle colonies had hills and rich soil, so the people cleared the land for arms.

People called these colonies the “bread basket” colonies because grain was so plentiful. The farmers exported wheat, barley, oats, and cows to the southern colonies and the British West Indies. These colonies also made iron, which was used to make guns and tools. 96 Many rivers flowed through the area. They made trading easy for farmers who lived inland. They sent their goods on boats to the big port cities of Philadelphia and New York. There, things were loaded onto sea-going ships. Colonies in the South ‘II About 100 men and boys sailed to Virginia in 1607.

They named their new home Jamestown. They did not plant crops. They were looking for gold. Just a few of the men built good homes. So, most of them died the first year. Then John Smith took charge. He made a new rule. If a man did not work, he did not eat. The people began to work. 92 In 1634, Lord Baltimore started Maryland. He was a Catholic who had been treated badly in England. He wanted Catholics to have a safe place to live. In 1663, North and South Carolina were settled as one colony. They stayed one colony until the sass. 93 Georgia was the last colony settled.

In 1732, James Gloater (OH-gull-Thorpe) went there. He built forts. This was to keep the English safe from the Spanish. The Spanish lived in Florida. It is Just south of Georgia. Cash Crops and Plantations 94 The South had good soil. Men had big farms called plantations (plan-ATA- shuns). They grew crops to get cash. They sold these crops to Great Britain. Virginia made a lot of money selling tobacco. The Carolinas grew tobacco and corn. Maryland did, too. South Carolina and Georgia planted rice. By the sass, South Carolina grew 95 It was hard work to plant and take care of the crops.

At first the farm owners had servants. These men and women worked for them for years. They did this to pay for the cost of their trip to the New World. By the late sass, the farm owners had slaves. Early Southern Governments 96 The House of Burgesses (BURR-Jugs-us) met in 1619. It was Virginians first government. The men who owned land picked its members. Maryland had a government like this, too. 97 James Gloater ruled Georgia for 20 years. He made every decision. Then, the British king said that Georgia was his to rule. After that, the king named the leaders.