It was a normal day at school. As always my morning was hectic and I…
A special emphasis will be placed on providing additional support to children from poor families who would like to go to high school. Yet, even as the budget for ups is set to increase, some people seem impatient about its pay-off, which most assume will be immediate?such as reducing the number of poor and hungry people in the country. Several opposition politicians have even resorted to calling the government program a “dole-out”. And some question the size of the allocations dedicated to the ups. Their typical argument is that there are better alternative uses for these funds.
At that forum, I argued otherwise?noting that the ups program is and continues to be a good investment. Here’s why. Ending poverty First, the ups is NOT the only program in the anti-poverty strategy of the government, yet it’s quite possibly the most important component. The reason is that this program attacks one of the root causes of poverty?weak education, health and other human creation will employ and lift out of poverty millions of under-skilled and unhealthy citizens. No business would get into such an enterprise, and no government can sustain economic growth and Job creation on such a weak foundation.
Therefore, human capital build-up is, first and foremost, the key ingredient in the strategy. What is often poorly understood about the ups program is that it’s less focused on adults, and more focused on the next generation. The economic pay-off from these investments, therefore, will take some years to fully manifest?in the form of more educated and healthy citizens and more productive workers. If we are serious about poverty reduction (and dare I say, poverty eradication), investing in children is where e should really begin.
Otherwise, a never ending stream of people with weak education and health will add to the ranks of the poor. Of course, human capital is not enough. Access to the other factors of production and growth will also need to dramatically improve for the vast majority of the population?such as through micromanage and lending to Seems (improving access to capital); and true agrarian reform (access to land). Preparing for the country youth bulge According to the United Nations, our country is expected to reach its peak number of young people by around 2040-2050, roughly 25-30 years from today (see Figure 1).
This means the brunt of our future labor force is comprised of infants already being born today?and their future capabilities depend heavily on the policy choices we make. ups can help ensure that the majority of our young people do not fall through the cracks. For every 1. 8 to 2 million children born every year in the Philippines, at least about one-third (or up to six hundred thousand) are born to poor families according to some estimates. Because of ups, children will grow up to be educated, healthy, and productive members of Philippine society, contributing to the country economic competitiveness in the longer term.
Therefore, the ups is not merely a matter of charity for poor children as far as the country is concerned?our long run economic growth depends in large part on how successfully we equip our future citizens and workers to compete. Nevertheless, the ups prepares future workers; but it does not in itself create Jobs. It is imperative that more Jobs are created and more entrepreneurship encouraged in order to spur economic development that is inclusive for the vast majority of the youth. Figure 1.
Philippine Youth (Aged 15-24), 1950-2100 (In Millions) Source: UN Population Division (World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision). Fueling economic and political transformation Improved human capital will definitely be useful for improving wages and productivity?but it could also help sustain “matured an Dana”. This is possible if a strong social protection system underpinned by ups truly “emancipates” over 4 million poor families from patronage politics. Patronage has become a way of life for many of our citizens, because the conditions of poverty force our people to seek help.
And before ups, poor families typically only had the local political patron as their between professionally managed and evidence-based social protection vs.. Derogate politics. Table 1. ups vs.. Patronage Politics Features Patronage Politics Coverage Poor households Primarily political allies and supporters–and they are not necessarily poor Depth of cash transfer Adequate to make a difference in child investments; but small enough in order to mitigate dependency Typically small, and meant as a dole-out Conditions for access School attendance, determine, vaccination and regular health check-ups for children, etc.
Voting for the patron Targeting Based on rigorous impact evaluation methods Based on actual or potential allegiance to the patron Evaluation of impact Based on evidence of poverty, as determined by the data Evaluation not necessary if the patron (and his/her family) keeps on winning in elections Risk of dependency and moral hazard Careful effort in the design of the program to mitigate the risk of dependency Dependency of the client on political patrons is advantageous for the patrons; indeed dependency is probably promoted Communication: Who is extending help?
Taxpaying citizens helping fellow citizens and their children to live a decent life and increase their chances of breaking free from poverty Patron is providing the help– and typically PEAL in nature Source: Author’s elaboration. As I noted in another Rapper article on reforming pork barrel politics, politicians are not the only ones addicted to pork?poor families actively seek the support of politicians, and they will continue to do so unless a proper social protection system is able to help poor and low income families mitigate risks and empower them in a systematic, fair, and evidence-based manner.
The ups contains key accountabilities in helping the poor to break free from the poverty trap?it is targeted at the poorest households (and not merely political allies); the cash support is less than what is accessory to be technically non-poor but enough to matter for child investments (so it is specifically designed to mitigate the risk of dependency); and beneficiaries (typically the cash is given to mothers) are required to deliver on conditions that are linked to investing in children (and not merely conditioned on voting for the patron).
On top of all this, the ups is among only a small number of government programs that are actually evaluated for their impact. In fact, the impact evaluation evidence suggests that the design of the ups seems to successfully mitigate any possible pungency effects?poor families actually further increase child investments, over and above the cash transfer itself. These are all good reasons to continue to expand status quo: no evaluation; poorly targeted; riddled with leakages (so that non poor people also benefit, and far less reaches the poor); and likely to be dominated by patronage politics. [email protected] Du. – Rapper. Com ACT to cover 10 M high school students MANILA, Philippines – More than 10 million high school students will be covered by the administration’s conditional cash transfer (ACT) program next year. Budget Secretary Florence Bad has told reporters that the program would target 10. 2 million secondary-level students who belong to the more than four million “poorest of the poor” families receiving monthly dole-outs of up to Pl, 400. He said President Aquinas expanded the coverage of the ACT program after finding out that many call center employees finished only high school education.
He said the administration reckons that high school graduates would have better chances of getting employed than those who Just completed elementary schooling. He said the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DEWS), which is administering the ACT program, as already identified the targeted poor students who would be helped to finish high school education. The present coverage of cash assistance is limited to families who keep their children in kinder and elementary school. Bad said because of the program’s expanded coverage; Aquinas is seeking a POP-billion ACT budget for 2014.
The proposed funding is about POP billion more than this year’s POP-billion outlay for cash dole-outs, he said. Despite the financial help they are receiving from the government, many ACT beneficiaries still feel that their plight is not improving. In a elevation interview, Bad attributed such sentiment to “chronic poverty. ” Such beneficiaries are so poor that they feel they remain poor even with government assistance, he said. He said it would take time before people could get themselves out of poverty. ACT critics claim the funds could better be used for infrastructure projects that generate Jobs.
The POP billion in ACT funds for the DEWS is one of the highest funding increases among departments and other agencies. Through Bad, Aquinas presented his proposed UP. 268-trillion national budget for 2014 to Speaker Felicia Belmont Jar. ND other leaders of the House of Representatives on Tuesday afternoon. Later that day, the House, in plenary session, referred the budge proposal to its appropriations committee, which Dave City Rep. Asteroid Angina chairs. As in the past three years, Belmont said his chamber would approve the budget before the end of the year.
By Jess Ditz (The Philippine Star) Education for the Poorest Children through Pantywaist Family parts of the country are expected to commence the School Year 2010-2011 successfully and level up to the next ladder of learning next school year through the help of the program. It is hoped that the program can be an important weapon in empowering the poor and a step forward in the effort to create a base for a movement for “transformation social protection,” one that sees the right to be free of poverty as a basic social right.
Education is one of the core ways in attaining this right,” Sec. Dinky Solomon said. For students and parents who are scarce in monetary and material wealth but are rich in dreams and hopes, enduring another academic year is a milestone achievement. It’s an instinctive belief and deeply imbued in the Filipino consciousness that education is the most effective tool to break free from the Haines of poverty. A young girl who hails from a sixth class municipality holds the same cherished value in her heart. Education is the key to success,” says Ellen Rose Cabochon with firm conviction. She is a first year high school student in San Asteroid National High School in Paton, Bra. Ellen used to walk to school daily with an empty pocket. Her old schoolbag contained her notebooks, recycled from her notebooks during elementary years or made from old calendars. Ellen couldn’t even afford a bullpen so she used a pencil which she said is cheaper. Statistics from the Department of Education (Depend) reflect the notations of many poor students like Ellen.
According to Depends research, only 65% of pupils reach sixth grade in the elementary level while only 61% gets a high school diploma in the secondary level. With her family dire condition, Ellen could have been one of the 39% who couldn’t reach the finish line to secondary school. Since their inclusion in Pantywaist Family, she is confident that she will get there and so is her class adviser. “She has been performing well in her academics and is also one of the most active students in school activities”, Allen’s class adviser attested. The Social
Weather Station’s study on Pantywaist Family last 2010 show improvements in school attendance enrollment rate for beneficiaries 6-14 years old is at 96% and compliance with attendance of school age beneficiaries is at 88%. The assessment also revealed that more students and parents attend extra-curricular activities; students come to school with better clothing, project materials, and food making them more active in classrooms. It is also noteworthy that Pantywaist Family plays a major role in reducing child labor especially in rural areas because many poor parents are now able to send their children to school.
Anally Simian, a Grade Ill pupil ranks 3rd place in their class while her sister Aileen Simian, Grade II, ranks 1st place. Razz May also tops the class of Grade IV. The siblings Agnes and Arsenic Raymond Jar. Rank 1st and 2nd place, respectively. They are only some of the children beneficiaries in Bury. Tibia, Talcum, Nava Acacia, who have significantly improved and excelled in their academic performance with the help of the program. Through the cash assistance they get from Pantywaist Family, the children are provided with allowance for their food and transportation.
They also feel more dignified with their ewe uniform, which they proudly wear especially when they are sent to other schools for competition. “Before, we have no choice but to use our old and tattered uniform during inter-school competitions. Other schools would laugh at us”, a teary-eyed school needs,” she added. Anally dreams of becoming a nurse, Aileen, Razz May and Agnes, aspires to become a teacher. They are hopeful that through Pantywaist Family coupled with consistent hardwood, they will be able to attain their dreams for themselves, and especially, for their families.
Pantywaist Family is a poverty reduction ND social development program of the Philippine government that provides cash grants to extremely poor households to allow them to meet certain human development goals through compliance with their co-responsibilities in health, education and parenting. Department of Social Welfare and Development ups Academic Performers The school-age beneficiaries huddle in the bargain hall to share their academic success stories. Tautology, Nava Acacia Anally Simian, a Grade Ill pupil ranks 3rd place in their class while her sister Aileen Simian, Grade II, ranks 1st place.
Razz May also tops the class of Grade ‘V. The siblings Agnes and Arsenic Raymond Jar. Rank 1st and 2nd place, respectively. They are some of the children beneficiaries of ups in orgy. Tibia, Talcum, Nava Acacia, who have significantly improved and excelled in their academic performance with the help of the program. The parents of these children shared that their inclusion in the Pantywaist Paying Filipino Program (ups) was a great factor in their children’s improved performance. Some of these children had absenteeism issues in the past.
Their teachers recognized and encouraged their potential intellect but they were not able to regularly attend to their lasses due to lack of money for transportation fare. Most of them were used to going to school without “boon” (allowance) and with an empty stomach. To them, breakfast was a luxury. A study in a public school in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania entitled “The Relationship of School Breakfast to Psychosocial and Academic Functioning in School- Aged Children” shows that improved academic performance and psychosocial functioning can be relatively attributed to breakfast intake.
According to the study, children who increased their participation in the school breakfast program had he rates of school absence and tardiness than children whose participation remained the same or decreased. Now that their parents can afford breakfast, these children perform better in school. Their potentials are nurtured through the reinforcement of ups which requires them of at least 85% school attendance as one of their co-responsibilities. For Ailing Lorena, Razz Mays mother, the Family Development Session (FADS) also imbibed in her the importance of parental support in her child’s academic endeavors.
She became more involved and supportive of Razz’s school activities which inspired her daughter to perform better in school. Through the conditional cash assistance they get from ups, the children are provided with allowance for their food and transportation. They also feel more dignified with their new uniform, which they wear whenever they are sent to other schools for competition. “Before, we have no choice but to use our old and tattered uniform during inter-school competitions. Other schools would laugh at us”, a teary-eyed Razz recalled. “l am grateful for ups for helping our mothers buy our school needs,” she added.
Anally dreams of becoming a nurse, Aileen, Razz May and Agnes, aspires to become a teacher. They re hopeful that through ups plus constant hardwood, they will be able to attain their dreams for themselves, and especially, for their families. Department of Social Welfare and Development ups Program: School Base Implementation Pantywaist Paying Filipino Program or ups can be described as form of voucher system/conditional cash transfer whereas the member of the communities which classified below poverty line will receive monetary subsidence coming from the national government aiming to improve their living condition.
However subsidence required several provisions provided by local DEWS similar with manner of determining recipients. The ups program started last 2008 under the previous administration and continued in massive scale in Aquinas Administration; This ACT entails several provision which still unfamiliar to both school administrators and teachers alike. Presently the government spending staggering amount of money per year,44 billion by 2013 and 62 billion in 2014 to sustain the program; which eventually added to fiscal national debt.
In order to implement the program Philippine Government has granted the amount of $800 million from World Bank and Asian Development Bank; therefore we can conclude that the funding of the program name from loan and eventually paid by tax payers. One of the targets of the ACT program is to decrease the drop-out rate among the poorest high school it only mean that teachers must be aware on the program.
The first thing we have to understand is the monetary subsidence of the program; ups recipient is receiving the amount of 300 pesos for educational assistance per qualified household and additional 500 pesos for health and nutrition per household monthly. Subsequently, ups recipient is required to participate in community-school related program such as clean drive, brigade swales and family day session. Furthermore, students or pupils under ups should have an average grade of 75. ups recipient must coordinate and cooperate to any school related activities since there is educational assistance given to them.
In addition ups recipient who is no longer in school should be removed from the program. Lastly, students or pupils who are ups recipient with more than a week absent without prior notice must not receive their monthly educational assistance. Hence only DEWS can add or remove any person under the ups program. ACT Program is strategically designed to invest in human capital by providing quality and accessible education to all, therefore it is mandate that we need a clear understanding on the provision entails in the program.