In this chapter Ellen G. White discusses the preparation needed to raise a child. The…
Explain how Disability May affect learning
Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth to 19 years. Children and young people develop at different rates, but the sequence in which they develop is mostly the same. Room head to toe from Inner to outer – control of muscles In the head and trunk then moving outward from simple to complex – simple words and short sentences to complex sentences from general to specific – responses in very young children can involve the whole odd but in older children may just involve the face The rate of development is dependent on many factors and can differ greatly from child to child. The main areas of development are: 1 _ Physical development 2. Social development 3. Intellectual development 4.
Language development Below is a short list of how they might develop in specific age ranges: 0-3 months: Smile, turn their head at familiar sounds, shake and hold a rattle, 6-12 months: Make noises and show feelings of Joy and sadness, begin to crawl, recognize their name, look for dropped objects, reach towards food, show affection to familiar people 1-2 ears: Begin to walk, begin to pick food up with fingers, wave, say no, hold drawing materials, shows preference for one hand, mostly cooperative, play alongside other children, use phrases 3 years: want to do things for themselves, demanding attention, Jump, climb, paint, eat by themselves, understands how to do 2/3 things at once, vocabulary extends, more controlled use of drawing materials, asking questions, making sentences, can walk on up toes, pours liquid, kick and throw a ball, sense of humor. Years: Pedal a bike, throw with aim, confident with scissors, more operative with adults, likes to help with everything, sociable and starts to show concern for others 5 years: grammar more accurate, able to communicate own ideas, recognize their own written name, use pictures to follow stories in a book, questions become more complex, hold drawing material steadily and copy shapes and lettering 5-7 years: fluent speaker, can make up stories, handles books, start to read 7-12 becoming less dependent on adults, aware of own gender, starts to form close friendships at about 8 years, can be shy, arrogant, bossy, uncertain, take an interest n certain subjects by 9, may need help with spelling but vocabulary will grow, know different tenses and grammar. 12-19 years: Adolescence is said to start for girls at age 11. At this stage they still lack clearly defined roles and feelings of anger, insecurity and frustration may surface.
Rate of growth is different in children and a 15 year old girl can be physically mature by the time she is 15. Boys usually reach adolescence later at age 14 when their voices may break and they will develop body hair. Co-ordination and strength will increase greatly in both sexes. Their bodies are experiencing dramatic changes and they also become less worried about adult approval generally seeking peer approval in its place. Their pace of intellectual development depends now on what guidance they are given to make the connections between knowledge and practical application in daily life. The more they are supported the quicker they will grow.
Task 2: Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the difference is important The difference between sequence and rate is that the sequence of development is a process where one development is followed by another and achieves a certain level tit a series of changes or growth that leads to a matured state. The rate of development is the pace of something that compares to something else. Although children follow the same pattern of development, every child has a different rate of development. So sequence will mostly be uniform and rate is very likely to be different in each child. The difference is important because these principals run through all the areas of development from physical, social, intellectual and language no matter what the age of the child.
If one or other is skipped or is slow it can be a cause for concern and ay lead to a child being given a special recommendation or having a special need in or outside school. Task 3: Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal factors Home environment, relationships with careers/parents and siblings, the child itself, behaviors and health as well as personal characteristics, are all factors that can impinge on a child’s development, personal and external. If there are negative experiences in any of the factors it can be harmful to brain development and affect a child’s ability to gain the core skills that are necessary to each developmental milestones.
Developmental delays can happen in all areas of a child’s development or Just one or two areas. Prenatal care can have a serious impact on a child’s development. Certain risks factors before birth can be avoided if the mother takes care of herself by not smoking or heavily drinking alcohol which could affect impact on brain development. Richard H. Schwartz, MD from American problems with learning, memory, attention, speech, and hearing, as well as severe behavioral problems’ Health – is a very important factor in development. If a child has any serious lath issues it can have a detrimental effect on their learning ability across all spheres of development.
For example a deaf child will have language and communication issues and this will significantly slow down the learning process. Learning Difficulties – A child with learning problems may be many developmental years behind their peers; this will have a big impact on what they can do in all areas of development including physical skills, social skills and intellectual skills. Task 4: Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of external factors There are many risk factors which can impinge on a child’s placement. Home environment is key to development and learning by positive experience can make a huge difference.
Much of what a child learns comes from the culture around them, early exposure to books, parental involvement and informal education in the home will be positive in a child’s development whereas poverty and neglect will have the opposite effect. This may mean a child develops poor social skills, may live in cramped housing where there is no room for play or to develop, unable to afford resources in and out of school, therefore not encouraging the child to progress in development outside school. Inability of parents to care for a child properly providing a positive home environment can influence how the child behaves at school. Community environment can also have a big part to play. Available resources and structure and in the community as well as the home make a difference to how a child can perceive the world.
Task 5: Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice The many different theories of development are all equally important as they help us to understand children’s behavior, reactions, and ways of learning and therefore influence practice. Jean Pigged was the first psychologist to make a study of cognitive development using detailed observational studies of cognition in children, and a series of simple tests to reveal different cognitive abilities. Before Piglet’s work, the common assumption in psychology was that children are less competent thinkers than adults. Pigged showed that young children think in very different ways compared to adults. His theory is that a developing child builds mental maps for understanding and responding to situations.
Development is therefore biologically based and changes as the child matures. Cognition develops in all children in the same sequence of stages. Piglets work influenced teaching practices to provide more hands on and relevant tasks for children where they learn through play. Pigged has been extremely influential in developing educational policy and teaching. For example, a review of primary education by the UK government in 1966 was based strongly on Piglet’s theory. The result of this review led to the publication of the Plowmen report (1967). The idea that children learn best through doing and actively exploring was seen as central to the transformation of primary school curriculum.
Unlike Piglet’s theory that children’s necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychological function” In other words, social learning tends to come before development and the environment in which they grow will influence how they think and what they think about. He places more emphasis on social contributions from peers, family and teachers believing this has a greater contribution towards learning than development. Whisky’s idea was “reciprocal teaching”, used to improve students’ ability to learn from text. In this method, teacher ND students collaborate in learning and practicing four key skills: summarizing, questioning, clarifying, and predicting.
The teacher’s role in the process is reduced over time. He believed that children could guide and develop each other by completing tasks together such as reading buddies which is widely used in schools today. Maria Interiors is associated with an educational method that encourages education through movement using multi sensory educational materials. Interiors also championed the concept of multi-age classrooms. She stated “The idea is for each child to move as quickly or as slowly as they need to move (in terms of earning). ” Interiors believed that her ultimate aim would be accomplished by allowing the children to manipulate their environment.
She believed it was not only important to Interiors to teach children the practical life skills necessary to live in society, but also to integrate the family into the learning process. Like Viscosity, Interiors said that it was the union of the family and the school in the matter of educational aims that would enhance student learning and be beneficial to both the parents and the child. Interiors said that both home and school were places of social processes and it was important to educate children in both contexts to allow them the skills to generalize any lessons learned to their future schooling career and ultimately the greater society. Multi-age classes that are part of the Interiors method allow younger children to learn from older ones.
The older children in a class are able to practice their skills by sharing them with younger children. The span of ages makes it easy for a younger child with advanced skills in a particular area to be able to work at a higher level than other children of the same age. Older children build self-esteem by serving as class leaders. Schools now increasingly use “hands- on” methods to teach math and science. Though those schools may not use Interiors materials, the idea of using concrete items that children can manipulate is one promoted by Interiors. Many of these theories have come together and helped create a framework for learning and development.
The Early Years Foundation Stage Framework for example uses some of these theories, positive relationships to encourage parents and careers to take an active part in their child’s learning (Augusto, Interiors), enabling environments, and the theory that every child learns and develops at different rates (Interiors). Children being allowed to play and explore by themselves as per Piglets theory, The Early Years Foundation Stage Framework states there are 3 prime areas for learning: communication & language: physical development: personal, social and emotional development: all of which our theorists believe in and articulated throughout their research. Different methods There are both summation and formative methods of assessment Summation monitoring such as SAT tests which are used to record progress and academic knowledge and general tests in class for example spelling and math tests which will indicate a rate of progress.
Formative methods such as different child observational methods such as focus child where the focus is on one child for a set amount of time, checklists where development is checked against specific milestones, time sampling recording information at regular intervals, structured which will monitor a child completing a pre set activity, naturalistic which a child will be observed during the normal course of events and a general diary record of the chills progress. An observer will evaluate the development of the child being measured against specific ‘milestones’ that should have been reached by a certain tag. The child is observed in the classroom or playground in their natural surroundings and also in the classroom to ascertain how they are progressing with their studies. The observer will gather a lot of information on behavior patterns, interaction with peers and teachers, how the child co-ordinates and solves any problems.
Specific emphasis should be put on social behavior, learning and motor skills. Sharing information with parents/careers and colleagues can be invaluable as they will see the child in a different setting perhaps to you and can also therefore make informed observations. An older child may need to be involved, according to their understanding, in any assessment of their development. This might include recording their feelings wishes and views. They would need to be monitored in different contexts (depending on which areas of their development is giving cause for concern). Culture and a different language being their first language must be taken into consideration.
A child may not have developmental needs when using their first language and this will need to be noted and addressed. Any observational monitoring outcomes must be fed back to the parents/careers of a child. If developmental delays were found during the monitoring the SEEN Code of Practice rules and guidance would need to be applied. There are many ways to monitor a child’s development and it is important that this monitoring is carried out throughout the early years and primary/secondary school to mitigate the risks of developmental delays. Task 7: Explain the reasons why children and young people’s development may not follow the expected pattern There are naturally many risk factors for development not following the expected pattern.
These can be, but are not exclusive to, an emotionally unsettled family life, one parent family, disadvantaged environmentally, cultural differences, disability, learning difficulties, communication and language issues, lack of early exposure to informal education to name a few. Emotional difficulties can effect expected patterns of development. A child who experiences difficult relationships in the home, perhaps parents who argue or a one parent family situation where the single parent may have other children and no time for the individual child. If a child does not have a solid relationship with the adults less likely to try new activities that would help their development. Parents who don’t elk or read to their children can also affect the child’s development educationally and socially.
Environmental factors such as poverty and lack of facilities could affect a child’s development, if a family’s finances are low some opportunities such as nursery will not be available and therefore reduce their exposure to early informal and formal education. If a disability is neglected or unidentified this could significantly affect a child’s development process. Not having the correct facilities or resources can obstruct a child’s development if a child or young person is physically not able to regress any further due to the severity of their learning need. Deafness will affect speech and communication. A child that is unable to use certain parts of their body will encounter developmental delays physically and possibly emotionally. A basic example is a child in a wheelchair will not be able to use a climbing frame and their physical development won’t be able to develop in the expected way.
In addition the school they attend may lack facilities for their particular needs. Culturally there could be reasons for development delays for example girls in many cultures are not given he same opportunities as boys and this will limit their development, although that is unlikely to be the case in the UK it certainly is the case in some countries. Girls in certain cultures are perhaps not expected to do as well as boys as they will marry early and be taken care of by a husband and his extended family. Where this is ingrained into a child they might try less hard at school. Particular learning difficulties will have a huge impact on development without the correct help early on.
A child having difficulties with reading and writing and understanding basic instructions will fall behind its peers. Communication difficulties, for example children with a different first language to that of the school where they attend may experience developmental delays due to lack of understanding on both the child’s and teachers part. In addition, incorrect/lack of communication resources can impair a child’s communication development. If the child or young person is physically unable to communicate, they will be unable to develop this area. This may lead to a lack of social skills or confidence which can negatively influence a child’s development.
Taking all of the above examples into consideration it is vitally important that the risk factors are identified and where possible, mitigated early on. Task 8: Explain how disability may affect development Disability can take many forms and is a serious risk factor when it comes to child development. A disabled child be it physical or learning is likely to have less opportunities in life than a child who is not disabled, restricting the choices of Job, and life experiences. A child may be faced with prejudice and discrimination, maybe bullied and teased by peers and this will affect confidence. Children with learning and physical disorders may become frustrated and uncooperative at home as well as t school.
The American Academy of Child Psychiatry points out that these children “may develop low self-esteem and resort to misbehaving as they would rather their teacher and peers see them as having a behavior problem rather than being need to be careful making assumptions along these lines. Physical disabilities may affect how a child plays and its ability to use play as a way of learning and gaining new skills and concepts depending on how the disability restricts movement. They may have difficulty manipulating materials in a constructive or meaningful way. Certain conditions, such as cerebral palsy, may also restrict the SE of speech, movement and co-ordination.
A child/young person with this disability may only be affected physically with this disability while others could be affected by seizures, epilepsy or difficulties with speech and language. Some children with a mobility disability become fatigued easily or may have pain that is controlled with medication, which could also cause negative side effects. Those whose arms and or hands are affected can experience difficulties with opening doors, reaching for and/ or carrying books, writing, using equipment etc. Many children with manual dexterity faculties can benefit from ergonomic adaptations to equipment and assisted technology but some schools simply do not have these facilities which can seriously disadvantage them in the classroom and at play.
Dyslexia, dysphasia, discalced, aphasia and dysphasia are common learning disabilities that can affect memory, the ability to read and write and do sums and also make it hard to concentrate. Personality conditions such as Autism and Espalier’s syndrome may also make it difficult for the child to integrate into a school environment, they may have trouble recognizing social cues and struggle in social situations. Children with processing disorders find it difficult to interpret the information their senses receive and this makes planning and organizing tasks very difficult. In addition to the academic struggles the child will face, the social and emotional effects will also play a part in developmental delays.
Children with communication difficulties are often thought to be far less able than they really are. It is important to check personal responses to ensure there are no automatic assumptions being made concerning a child’s intelligence and ability if their speech is very slow or slurred as their potential can go unrecognized. This of rouser can place them at a serious disadvantage. 3 The school/parents/careers and outside agencies such as SENSE should work together to ensure that a child with a disability is given full support and activities and tasks should be adapted to their abilities. Receiving the best support early on will minimize development delays giving the child the best chance to reach its potential.
Task 9: Explain how different types of intervention can promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the expected pattern There are many different types of professionals/agencies who can offer support to hillier who are not following the expected pattern of development. This support is coordinated by the schools and needs the permission of the parents/careers of the identified so that the correct support/intervention is given in order to prevent the development delay getting worse and spreading to other areas of the child’s development progress. The types of intervention that are used in schools are targeted to meet the needs of individual issues. Before outside agencies are called in the school will make an observation of the child which can be by a number of different methods using checklists, charts, structured observations, timeliness and / or a diary record.
The child’s performance can regularly be monitored by using standard screening and assessment tools along with the objectives specified in the National Literacy and Innumeracy Strategy Framework. If the school, after the initial observation has been carried out, is still concerned then outside agencies may need to be called in. The SEEN code of practice states that schools should provide a graduated response to children with learning difficulties. The school would also give the child extra help in the form of a School Action Plan which means the child would be given an Individual Educational Plan that is linked to the main areas of education IEEE literacy, math, behavior and social skills.
This plan hopes to ensure that the child gets the help and support it needs and moves forward to natural course of development. If this particular intervention does not bring the desired outcome then School Action Plus will ask the SENSE to enlist the help of outside agencies and it may be identified that outside agencies need to be involved. Assisted technology is available for those children with reduced motor skills. Social rocker, counselors and training in nutrition for example for a family can improve the child’s personal circumstances which would have a positive impact on its attendance at school and its ability to want to learn and participate.
Educational programmers can give extra tuition to those children who are behind their peers. A speech and language therapist would assess and work with children who have problems with communication thereby improving confidence and self esteem. Psychological services can help with behavioral and other issues which would give the child one to one time with an adult that would listen and understand where the issues lie. Specialist nursing assistance would help in cases where a child has special medical needs. The key issue is that the correct support and interventions are made very early on to give the child the best possible chance of fulfilling its potential.
Task 10: Analyses the importance of early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders and the potential risks of late recognition It is crucial that speech and language issues in young children are identified quickly and the appropriate interventions are put in place to help the child progress alongside its peers as much as possible. The sooner problems are identified the more chance there is that interventions will have a successful outcome.. Communication. Language is particularly important as it enables the child to store information in an organized, structured way and also express their thoughts clearly. Oral language is also key to developing literacy skills. A child may use its vocabulary to enjoy stories and then learn to enjoy reading and writing. In addition social relationships are based around language ability.
This is essential to form relationships with peers and enjoy and understand the concept of play, making rinds and interactions in social situations, as well as learning in formal situations. There are a number of reasons why a child may have language and speech issues. Untreated ear infections can cause the fluid to increase in the inner ear that will pose a persistent problem. Cerebral Palsy can cause oral functions not to work at full capacity. Some language issues are hereditary such as stammering. Stammering can cause acute embarrassment to the point a child will avoid speaking in class, or answering questions when they know the answer, to avoid teasing and ridicule.
Also f parents do not communicate with their child, speak or read to them, this can also affect the rate of development in that the child will not have acquired the vocabulary level it should have at the appropriate stages. It’s worth noting that for most children there are no obvious reasons why they have language or speech development delays and we shouldn’t naturally assume it is caused by hearing issues. A child may simply be shy and need time to assimilate in certain environments which is why initial observation is crucial. The most important thing initially is to eradicate any external reasons and then focus on the best way award for that particular set of circumstances. Therefore, if a child is showing signs of developmental delays early observation should be carried out to ascertain how bad the problem is and whether further intervention is required.
It is important then to observe the child in different settings and a checklist and/or naturalistic methods of observation may be a good way to ascertain the severity of the problem. It would be a good idea to watch the child in unstructured settings such as the playground, the lunch venue and structured settings such as the classroom. Listening carefully to how the child interacts with peers and adults will give a good sense of whether the problem is severe enough to be referred to the appropriate professional for example a speech and language therapist, sensory adviser teachers or specialists with autism. The potential risks of late recognition can be catastrophic.
If a child has difficulty in communicating with others due to a speech and language delay or disorder the child will be at a serious disadvantage, and later on the failure to communicate correctly could be misinterpreted as misbehaving. A child with language delay will have great faculty in communicating to teachers and peers its understanding of a subject matter and this does not mean the child is unintelligent though it may appear that this is the case. The communication and language and developmental delays will lack of confidence, sometimes unable to manage thought processes and could experience emotional problems. For example the child will find it difficult to form a relationship with other children which could lead to behavioral problems and isolation.
With regard to the above findings I do not think there can be any question that it is imperative that early intervention is carried out where a problem has been identified. The initial observations and further systems that the school and outside bodies can put in place to help the child progress are vital for the child’s future interactions, communication, learning and relationships throughout its life. Task 1 1: Explain how multi-agency teams work together to support speech, language and communication Multi agency working brings together different practitioners, services and teams of professionals that will work together to support the needs of children and young people alongside their parents/careers.
The government’s aim is to support children and parents from birth to age 19 creating Joined up services that cover health, education and family support in a variety of ways. Collaborative working is important as issues with speech and language could cross health and education and collaboration will be very effective in quickly providing a range of services that a child will need to progress alongside its peers. The Special Educational Needs Code of Practice recommends that once an issue has been identified as needing multi agency intervention a set of professionals in a multi agency team would be best placed to assist going forward. As the needs of each child can be very different the composition off multi agency team will differ in each case.
For example and depending on the severity of the issue an assessment team could include the following; Pediatrician Educational Psychologist Specialist Teachers for Learning Support, Hearing, Vision, Sensory Impairment, Autism/Complex Communication Difficulties Clinical Psychologist Speech and Language Therapist Occupational Therapist They have specialist knowledge and skills and can provide information, advice, guidance and training and can support those in daily contact with the child such as arenas/careers, teachers, support assistants Their role is to try to remove barriers to achievement, agree strategies, and sometimes provide, resources. They will work together sharing information and supporting each other so that the child’s needs are addressed in the most effective and efficient way possible. The parents/careers will be closely involved at every stage of the monitoring and review, and would meet regularly to discuss ways to tackle the issue, progress and targets. If there is no progress educational psychologists then may become involved to carry out further