Alfred adler and william james
Career and Later Life: Alder soon turned his interests toward the field of psychiatry. Minion, Sigmund Freud Invited him to Join a psychoanalytic discussion group. This group met each Wednesday In Fraud’s home and would eventually grow to become the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. After serving as President of the group for a time, Adler left in part because of his disagreements with some of Fraud’s theories.
While Adler had played a key role in the development of psychoanalysis, he was also one of the first major figures to break away to form his own school of thought He was quick to point UT that while he had been a colleague of Fraud’s, he was in no way a disciple of the famous Austrian psychiatric In 1912, Alfred Adler founded the Society of Individual Psychology. Idler’s theory suggested that every person has a sense of Inferiority. From childhood, people work toward overcoming this Inferiority by asserting their superiority over others.
Adler referred to this as ‘striving for superiority’ and believed that this drive was the motivating force behind human behaviors, emotions, and thoughts. Contributions to Psychology: Alfred Idler’s theories have played an essential role In a number of areas Including heresy and child development. Alder’s ideas also influenced other important psychologists including: Abraham Moscow Carl Rogers Karen Horned Roll May Erich From Albert Ellis Today, his Ideas and concepts are often referred to as Deadlier psychology.
While Adler had converted to Christianity, his Jewish heritage led to the Nazi’s closing down his clinics during the sass. As a result, Adler emigrated to the United States to take a professor position at the Long Island College of Medicine. In 1937, Adler went on a I OFF track of his cremated remains shortly after his death and the ashes were presumed cost before being discovered in 2007 at a crematorium in Edinburgh, Scotland. In 2011, 74 years after his death, Idler’s ashes were returned to Vienna, Austria.
In an interview with The Guardian, his granddaughter explained, “Vienna was essentially Idler’s home, his birth home and there was the triangle, you know, Adler, Jung and Freud, and all had that sense of coming out of that place, so there’s something rather fitting about him going back there. ” Selected Publications Adler, A. (1925). The Practice and Theory of Individual Psychology. London: Rutledge. Adler, A. (1956). The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler. H. L. Encroacher and R. R. Encroacher (Deeds. ). New York: Harper Torches.
James children traveled to Europe frequently, attended the best possible schools, and were immersed in culture and art, which apparently paid off- William James went on to become one of the most important figures in psychology, while brother Henry James became one of the most acclaimed American novelists. Early in school, James expressed an interest in becoming a painter. While Henry James Sir. Was known as an unusually permissive and liberal father, he wanted William to study science or philosophy. Only after William persisted in his interest did Henry permit his son to formally study painting.
After studying painting with the artist William Morris Hunt for more than a year, James abandoned his dream of being a painter and enrolled at Harvard to study chemistry. While two of James’ brothers enlisted to serve in the As the family money began to dwindle, William realized he would need to support himself and switched to Harvard Medical School. Unhappy with medicine as well, he left on an expedition with naturalist Louis Assize, although the experience was not a happy one. “l was, body and soul, in a more indescribably hopeless, homeless and friendless state than I ever want to be in again,” he later wrote.
Suffering from health problems and severe depression, James spent the next two years in France and Germany. It was during this time that he studied with Hermann von Hellholes and became increasingly interested in psychology. After graduating from Harvard Medical School in 1869, James continued to sink into depression. After a period of inactivity, the president of Harvard offered James a position as an instructor. While he famously commented that “the first lecture on psychology I ever heard being the first I ever gave,” James accepted the Job and went on to teach at Harvard for the next 35 years.
James also founded one of the first psychology laboratories in the United States. His classic textbook The Principles of Psychology (1890) was widely acclaimed, but some were critical of James’ personal, literary tone. “It is literature,” psychologist Wilhelm Wound famously commented, “it is beautiful, but it is not psychology. ” Two years later, James published a condensed version of the work titled Psychology: The Briefer Course. The two books were widely used by students of psychology and were known to most as “the James” and “the Jimmy” respectively. William James – Theory: James wrote considerably on the concept of pragmatism.
According to pragmatism, the truth of an idea can never be proven. James proposed we instead focus on what he called the “cash value,” or usefulness, of an idea. James opposed the structuralism focus on introspection and breaking down mental events to the smallest elements. Instead, James focused on the wholeness of an event, taking into the impact of the environment on behavior. The James-Lange theory of emotion proposes that an event triggers a physiological reaction, which we then interpret. According to this theory, emotions are caused by our interpretations of these physiological reactions.
Both James and the Danish physiologist Carl Lange independently proposed the theory. Influence on Psychology In addition to his own enormous influence, many of James’ students went on to have prosperous and influential career in psychology. Some of James’ students included Mary Whiten Calking, Edward Thornier, G. Stanley Hall and John Dewey. Selected Works by William James James, William (1890) The Principles of Psychology. Classics in the History of Psychology, an internet resource developed by Christopher D. Green of York University, Toronto, Ontario.
James, William (1897) The Will to Believe James, William (1907) Pragmatism: A new name for some old ways of thinking. New Myers, Gerald. (2001) William James: His Life and Thought. Yale University Press. Simon, Linda (1999) Genuine Reality: A Life of William James. University Of Chicago Press. Carl Jung Biography (1875-1961) Carl Jung, 1912 Image from the Wakefield Commons Ads Carl Jung analytical psychology collective unconscious history of psychology Best Known For: Studies of the human psyche. Dream analysis The collective unconscious Archetypes Birth and Death: Carl Jung was born July 26, 1875 He died June 6, 1961
Carl Gustavo Jung was born in Swill, Switzerland to father Paul Achilles Jung, a pastor, and mother Emilie Perspires. He was their fourth, but only surviving child. His mother was frequently depressed and absent from the household, but her mood eventually lifted once the Junk’s moved closer to her family. Jung later described himself was an introverted and solitary child, saying that he was most happy when he was left alone to his thoughts. At the age of 12, Jung was pushed to the ground so hard by another classmate that he lost consciousness. Jung started fainting anytime he was supposed to go to school or do homework.
His parents and doctors became convinced that the boy might have epilepsy. After Jung overheard his father confessing his concerns that his son would never be able to work and support himself, Jung developed a renewed focus on academics. While he still fainted several times after he began studying again, he was eventually able to overcome the problem and return to school. Jung never experienced this problem with fainting again, but he later explained that the experience served as his first encounter with neurosis. Career: Jung decided to study medicine, but also developed an interest in spiritual phenomena while in school.
It was this fascination with medicine and spirituality that led him into the field of psychiatry, which he viewed as a combination of his two interests. In 1902, he completed his doctoral dissertation, titled “On the Psychology and Pathology of So-called Occult Phenomena” and graduated from University of two remained married until her death in 1955, Jung reportedly continued to have romantic relationships with other women. One of these other women included his first patient at the Burgling Psychiatric Hospital, a young Russian woman named Sabina Spelling. Based on letters exchanged between the two, the affair asset for several years.
Eventually, Jung broke off their romance after determining that it was having a negative impact on his career. Early in his career, Jung worked with psychiatric patients at the University of Zјrich asylum. In 1906, he wrote Studies in Word Association and sent a copy to Sigmund Freud. The event served as the beginning of a friendship between the two men. When the two finally met in person in 1907, they reportedly spent more than 12 hours talking non-stop. His time spent working with Sigmund Freud had a major impact on Jung later theories and helped him develop a fascination for the unconscious mind.
Jung wanted to further understanding of the human mind through dreams, myth, art and philosophy. Initially, Freud viewed Jung as his proto©g©, but the friendship began to dissolve as Jung started to develop his own ideas that diverged from Fraud’s views. Eventually, Jung began to separate from Freudian theory, rejecting Fraud’s emphasis on sex as the sole source of behavior motivation. It was during this period of intense self- analysis that Jung became increasingly interested in dreams and symbols, later using what he learned during this time as the basis for his theories of psychology.
Jung became more organized about his theoretical approach, broke from psychodrama theories and formed his own theory called Analytical Psychology. Parting with Freud was certainly not easy. Freud closed ranks among his other followers. Junk’s colleagues in the psychoanalytic community turned against him, as did many of his former friends. In the six year period that followed, Jung devoted himself to exploring his own subconscious. He recorded his experience in a previously unpublished book known at The Red Book and continued to write and illustrate the book over the next fifteen years.
In 2009, the book wastefully published, allowing readers an unparalleled look into the mind of one of psychology’s most fascinating figures. “To the superficial observer,” Jung wrote in the epilogue he penned in 1959, “it will appear like madness. ” Jung believed the human psyche exists in three parts: the ego (the conscious mind), the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious. Jung believed the collective unconscious was a reservoir of all the experience and knowledge of the human species. Jung also believed that the process of individuation was essential in order for a person to become whole and fully developed as a human Ewing.