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Musicology Department university of Arts “George UNESCO” from la$ 7-9 Worth street, ‘ail, 700126 ROMANIA Abstract: Although the pair prelude-fugue Is naturally associated with Bach’s Well- tempered clavier, modern treatments applied to fugues and to other forms belonging to the Baroque were relatively common in the sass and the sass.
The waning interest for the imitative polyphonic composition in the second half of the 20th century was compensated by the emergence in European musical cultures of several valuable collections. This study concerns the Russian musical space and two representative works from the sequence of modern reinterpretations of the cycle of preludes and fugues composed after 1950: 24 Preludes and fugues, Pop. 87 by Dimmitt Stochastic and 24 Preludes and fugues Pop. 29 and Pop. 45 (1970) by Roding Shedding.
Key-words: polyphony, prelude, fugue, structure, tonal sister 1 _ Premises Interest for the prelude-fugue combination has fluctuated during the stylistic periods dominated by the homophones thinking, as the composers approached polyphony and Baroque forms as neoclassical (neo-Baroque) re-designs, with more or less overt instructions tendencies. Among the numerous cycles or single groupings of the prelude-fugue type, we have the modern responses to the Well-tempered clavier 1 , some of them using the same title as the Baroque model, realized with the constructive means and the language of the 20th century.
The diversity of approaches is visible within a unique composition school, the Russian musical culture of the 20th century, which contains three remarkable responses to the Well- tempered clavier, belonging to Dimmit Stochastic, Roding Shedding and Sergei Solutions. This study aims to compare the works of the first two composers, from the irrespective of their similarities and differences, both between the two creative visions and between them and the Baroque model.
Each of the two works was influenced in a different manner by Bach’s Well-tempered clavier. Thus, whereas Catholicism’s cycle of preludes and fugues Pop. 87 follows closely Bach’s model, both in structure and in tone, while affirming the composer’s personal style, Roding Shedding associates the musical ideas of his preludes and fugues with the Baroque concept In a much more radical manner, creating a completely different musical style, while preserving the original formal Idea of the baroque patterns.
Bach’s affiliation can be detected in Catholicism’s creation due to the fact that he uses a well-outlined tonal structure, related to the laws of the system of functionality. The tonal organization in Pop. 87 revolves around a circle of fifths, with pairs of preludes and fugues in major tonalities and their minor relatives, rather than follow an ascending sequence at semitone intervals. This tonal sequence can also be found in Chopping Preludes pop. 8, and the composer had used it previously, in 24 Preludes pop. 34 (1932-33). Also, the tonal sequence of the prelude-fugue pairs have a subliminal reiterative subtext, related to the expressive connotations of tonalities, which carries the sound expression from the “innocent” tonal world of the Prelude and Fugue in C major to the profound and sublime severity found in the finale of the Prelude and fugue in D minor.
Although the general sound structure has a tonalities with multiple insertions, from the chromatic and modal to those found in Stravinsky works and in folk music, Catholicism’s harmonic language bears the mark of the obvious or latent presence of a motif translated in sound as a minor fourth. The composer uses the DASH motif and its transpositions in the Scherzo of the Violin concerto pop. 77. In pop. 87, the DASH motif (DASH – SHED: E flat, D, C, B natural) lends cohesion to the whole, as it appears episodically in some of the preludes and fugues: Fugue no. , m. 122-123 (soprano), in Prelude no. 9 and in Fugue no. 13, mm. 99-105 (alto/soprano). Ex. 1 – Dimmit psittacosis – Fugue XIII, m. 99-105 Roding Strychnine’s cycle of 24 Preludes and fugues belongs to a completely different sound and tone sphere. In 1960, Shedding began incorporating in his creation the various musical styles that existed at the time, such as neoclassicism, pop and Jazz USIA, as well as the serial and random techniques used in the mod-sass.
Thus, Shedding proves to be an expert in stylistic imitations, as well as in the fusion of apparently incompatible languages; he himself defined his musical position as post- avian-garden. Discussing his style, Valentine Oklahoma stated that it included free serial procedures and avian-garden techniques such as pointillism and alliterations, combined with the complex polyphony, and on the other hand reflections of various types of Russian folk music, from bells, mourning chants, sacred music, shepherds’ songs, Shattuck (short Russian folk poems)3 and folk songs.
Strychnine’s cycle of 24 Preludes and fugues, written between 1964 and 1970, is divided in two volumes, each of them corresponding to tonalities with sharps and with flats, respectively, the tonal organization being similar to that used by Stochastic, based on pairs of relative tonalities that follow each other at ascending fifth intervals. The exception is no. 13, which uses the enharmonic variety in order to preserve the unity of the second volume.
The sound language used in Strychnine’s work was described by Level Hosanna as a combination between a homage paid to the dedication quinine and a parody spirit ( Hosanna, Level, 1998, aped. Yuan-Jinn See, B. M. , M. M. , 2003, p. 32). The dedication treatment is obvious in the monadic expositions of the fugues, but also in the openings of the preludes. Ex. 2 – Roding Seceding – Fugue II, Strychnine’s tonal conception in the cycle of preludes and fugues is completely different from that of Stochastic. The horizontal design of the polyphonic texture determines the perception of tonality.
The melodic planes are not connected to tonality, with a few exceptions in the extreme sections of the form, where the imposer underlines certain moments with harmonic significance in the general polyphonic context. As a rule, tonic is established through imposition or underlining, especially in the finale. The accidental accord of most preludes and fugues often contains the sound of tonic as the predominant sound, albeit associated with additional sounds that are relatively remote from the function of the tonic. 3. Prelude and fugue – unity vs.. Perversity As far as the relationship between the components of the prelude-fugue pair is concerned, in Stochastic we find a perfect symbiosis, marked by a few decisive unifying factors: the attach indication present at the end of each prelude, signaling the composer’s intention to connect the prelude to the fugue, the clear indication of tonality at the end of the prelude and at the beginning of the fugue, either through a cadence or through a finale that is incompletely resolved at the entrance of the theme head, the use (in many cases) of a common thematic material or of quotations proper, correspondences in atmosphere, character, rhythm etc. The individual prelude not only sets up the fugue, but also stands out as an individual piece with a unique musical characteristic. The Preludes sometimes evoke such questions or puzzles to the following Fugues as if the Fugues are destined to show the answers and conclude the entire story.
One of the key indicators of the organic relationship between each Prelude and Fugue is how Stochastic uses rhythmic or textural variation of a single idea as mitotic devices for both sections. In the Prelude and Fugue No. 4, it is clear that the beginning of the main subject of the Fugue was generated from the middle voice in the first measure of the Prelude. EX. B – Dimmit psittacosis – Prelude IV Dimmit psittacosis – Fugue IV In Strychnine’s work, the relationship between components of the set is realized based on different coordinates, the musical reflection of a composer with a deep spirituality, who lives in a permanent conflict between reason and feelings, dreaming and reality, sense and sensitiveness.
Although the entire cycle is unitary, each of the two volumes has its distinctive aspects. The preludes and the fugues in times affected, exaggerated, often with a humorist tone. In the second notebook, the emotional balance is tipped towards the introvert, lyrical, dramatic and philosophical expression. Throughout the cycle, Shedding creates a diversity of emotional zones, with tensioning, tensioning and climaxes. The Prelude and Fugue no. 20 in C minor is the dramatic cusp of the entire discourse, through its polyphonic, textural and expressive complexity. The entire cycle has a symmetrical structure, as Shedding composed the first pair (No. 1 in C major) and the last (No. 4 in D minor) in a relationship of structural symmetry, each of the components of the set being the correspondent of its reversed version, at the same time in triple counterpoint, like a omniscience of the techniques used by Hindering in Lauds tonality (1942), where the prelude and the postlude are in a relationship of reversed recurrence. Ex. AAA – Paul Hindering – Lauds tonality, Interlude De I in C Ex. B – Paul Hindering – Lauds tonsil’s, Interlude XIV in D Another significant aspect that characterizes Strychnine’s preludes and fugues is the reverse relationship between the melodic and the rhythmic character. Thus, the complexity of the melodic plane is compensated by the simplicity of the rhythm structure, and vice versa. The Fugue no. II in A minor reflects this balancing of the suture due to the relationship between the chromatic melodic structure and the economy of the rhythmic formulas.
Ex. 5- Roding Seceding – Fugue II On the other hand, although the preludes and the fugues are connected though the attach indication, some of the pairs have symmetrical structures, and thus their sequence creates the feeling of a single piece. In Prelude and fugue no. 14, this symmetry is highlighted at the level of agog details: the prelude starts in presto, followed by the allegro, while the fugue has a reversed order of tempos – allegro/ presto. 4. The prelude One of the elements of similarity between the WET cycle and Catholicism’s 24 preludes and fugues is the correspondence between preludes and various forms and genres of dance music.