Graham Greene uses the motif of light to symbolize power. One young boy Tremor, nicknamed…
Effective thematic exploration In prose Fulton depends entirely on the writer’s characterization. ” With reference to ONE British, American or Post-colonial work of fiction, discuss the extent to which you agree with the statement. In every literary work brilliant authors utilize characterization to effectively generate their masterpiece through thematic concerns. Thematic concerns refer to a central idea in a piece of writing or literary work. D.
H Lawrence in one of his best sellers Sons & Lovers explores thematic concerns such as power, the Oedipus employ, industrialization and family relationships. Well-rounded authors do not solely limit their work to the use of characterization but also take into consideration other devices. Lawrence makes use of not only characterization but also foreshadowing, diction and stream of consciousness to examine thematic concerns mentioned above. The presupposition that effective thematic exploration In prose fiction depends entirely on the writer’s characterization Is fiction depends entirely on the writer’s characterization Is faulty.
Characterization Is the process by which the writer reveals the personality of a character. Lawrence explores the theme of power through the use of characterization by using a character’s actions to depict their personality. The first example of this may be seen where Walter Morel quickly moves from an A grade husband to an A grade alcoholic who abuses his family and wife. In chapter one we see where Mrs… Morel discovers unpaid bills and that her husband actually lied to her about owning “their” house. Mr… Morels deception affords him Gertrude hand in marriage.
In lying to impress Gertrude the reader is able to interpret that Lawrence uses characterization to explore power. Another example can be seen where Mr… Morel’s unpredictable short temper causes him to physically abuse Gertrude and locks her out of their home, this emphasizes his brutish personality. After being let Inside Gertrude goes about her motherly duties and does everything for Morel as if nothing had happened. Here we may observe the theme of power again as Morel uses his brutish behavior to oust Gertrude and sort of show her “who’s boss. “Lawrence adds: ‘He was afraid of her. ‘ Morel, in his illiteracy, cannot compete with his verbal, articulate wife. Primitive as he is in his drunkenness, e uses brute force to maintain his authority, shutting his pregnant wife outdoors in the middle of the night, before falling into a drunken sleep himself. ” (Mel,2010) Characterization may also be seen as Lawrence gives Paul attributes of his father where he tries to destroy anything he cannot fix. For example we see Paul smashing and burning Ann.’s doll as a sacrifice or rather a statement of power.
Lawrence displays through the use of characterization that men have to create a spectacle to exhibit their dominance or power; It Is as though the females challenge their (Morel & Paul) authority. Characterization Is a crucial part of making a story compelling It shows others’ reactions to the character or person being portrayed. Foreshadowing the plot. Foreshadowing often appears at the beginning of a story or a chapter and helps the reader develop expectations about the coming events in a story. D. H Lawrence constantly uses the foreshadowing technique to explore the Oedipus complex theme.
The Oedipus complex may be defined as a Freudian theory where the complex of emotions aroused in a young child,typically around age four, by an unconscious sexual desire for the parent of the opposite sex and wish to exclude the arena of the same sex. An example of Lawrence use of foreshadowing to express this theme may be seen in chapter one, where William presents a gift won at the fair to his mother Gertrude, “he pulled from his pocket two egg cups,with pink moss-roses on them” This act would more relate to one presenting a gift to their lover and thus foreshadows the Oedipus complex.
The pink moss-roses on the egg cups suggests a deeper meaning. “A pink moss rose is a confession of love,” (K¶he’d, 1996-2014) and the two eggs are symbolic of couples. Here we see that Williams act of presenting the fit show who his preferred parent is, which is his mother. Consequently affording the exclusion of the father Mr… Morel. Another example of foreshadowing may be seen in Lawrence use of language. The text has always referred to Anne as “the daughter,” only “the girl. ” This foretells a closer relationship between Gertrude and William thus foreshadowing the Oedipus complex.
The apparent exclusion of Anne highlights the mother son which creates intimacy in that the focus is on them. Foreshadowing is also seen in Lawrence careful naming of the chapters, especially chapter three : “The casting off of Morel- The taking on of William. The title of Chapter three foreshadows again another element of the Oedipus complex as it blatantly states that the husband-wife relationship has been disregarded and causes the mother-son relationship to dominate. In the use of these foreshadowing techniques D. H Lawrence allows the reader to examine the Oedipus complex in relation to the plot.
We are able to predict what will happen in the later chapters and also analyses concerns in previous chapters. Lawrence uses this technique to pace the reader because if an event is foreshadowed the reader wants to read further to see how the plot develops. The writer also uses foreshadowing to prepare us for the ending so that it does not seem to be arbitrary. Through this we see that Lawrence has a plan, beginning the plot with an ending in sight. The Oedipus complex here comes into play as it affects family disintegration and hinders the development of William and also Paul.
At the end of Sons & Lovers Paul is devastated about his mother’s death (as any son would be) however he is devastated to the point where he wants to commit suicide, or he cannot live on without his mother. This shows how much he “loved” Gertrude. However we also see that in making his final decision Paul s able to move on and progress with his life as his mother had been hampering the whole time. Readers and critics may observe that this is a reinforcement that the Oedipus complex was a formidable theme in the novel. “Industrialization speaks to the era categorized by large scale manufacturing and advanced technical enterprises.
Industrialization has endowed the modern civilization with rapid and much progress but at the same time it has snatched away the vitality of life. David Herbert Lawrence Sons & Lovers is an authentic document of the English lover class life at the beginning of the twentieth century. (Chowder et al, 2011 . ) Lawrence uses mostly in the first chapter of the novel. The near beginning of chapter one speaks of the landscape and speaks of a “sudden change” taking place, “gin pits were elbowed aside by the large mines of the financiers. Diction refers to the choice and use of words and phrases in speech or writing. Lawrence uses it here to show the reader how abruptly the large mines took over. The word “elbowed” suggests that these small gin pits (small coal pits) were dismissively shoved away. The phrase enhances the presence and domination of not only the large mines but industrialization on a hole. The movement was swift and dominated all areas of England. Another example of diction is observed where the industry accounts for cottage kitchens being opened to a “nasty alley of ash pits. An “ash-pit” otherwise known as an accumulation of ashes alludes to death. This is so because when one dies their body decays to ashes. A pit is a large dark hole which descends into the ground, this depicts a cloud of negativity. Another example of diction exists in the line “already he was a prisoner of industrialism. ” This line speaks to Paul and his search for identity and the meaning of life. Gertrude does not want her child to be involved in coal mining like his father, however it is as if he is a “prisoner. “Technology represents the enslavement of men by industry. The use of the word prisoner suggests the strong hold industrialization has on man. Factory life with its enforced confinement and long hours isolate man from the natural world. ” (Chowder, 2011) A prison isolates man from the natural world hence why Lawrence refers industrialization to it. If this is what industrialization did for members of the lower class,wasn’t it powerful? (according to Lawrence) Through Lawrence use of diction we are able to see how he let towards industrialization. Lawrence feels that industrial life perverts people, human mind loses its fertility. ” (Chowder,2011) Evidence of this can be seen in reference to Mr… Morel. He was a dreary miner who abused his wife and children and loved the dark. One can say industrialization is to blame partly for this as we see how cheerful Mr… Morel was at the Christmas party when he was not working in the mines. Lawrence use of diction emphasizes the somber mood of the novel in note of industrialization, using words such as “dark,” “black,” “hell row,” “bottoms,” “desolate.
Family relationship is a self explanatory theme which speaks to the colonization and relationships in the family unit. One may say stream of consciousness is interior monologue or the thoughts and feelings of characters. Through the use of stream of consciousness Lawrence allows the reader to monitor family relationships. Stream of consciousness is brought out in chapter one where after hearing of Morels lies that he had not owned the house nor the furniture, something in Gertrude “proud, honorable soul had crystallites out hard as rock. Here Mrs… Morels inner feelings re revealed and it shows that the relationship between her and Morel was not built on a firm rock. If they had a relationship with stronger tie then nothing would have “crystallites” in her as she would have known that they would work out the issue together. It is as though their marriage is insubstantial. Another example of stream of consciousness is seen in chapter four where Paul despises his father and so prays for his death, if he does not give up drinking.
This epitomizes Paula hate toward Morel for general abuse of the family. His feelings are revealed and we may question the father-son relationship. The fathers and sons in society tend to traditionally have communication with the God we see that Paul expresses a deep desire, which is his fathers death. This is only revealed as interior monologue from Paul to God and displays the relationship that Morel and Paul hold. Through Morel’s stream of consciousness we are able to tell how he feels. On page 42 Lawrence writes “Morel was penniless.
He dreaded his wife. Having hurt her, he hated her. He did not know what to do with himself that evening, having not even two pence with which to go to the Palmettos.. ” It states that Morel hates his wife here however it can be view that cause he is unable to provide for her he developed a hate towards her. This excerpt shows that Morel actually cared about his wife but could not change the current situation. Here we see that family relationship is disintegrating because Morel cannot carry out his role as the provider effectively.
It seems as though through the use of stream of consciousness we see a breakdown in family relationships because of Morel. However a critic disagrees and states that “l feel Gertrude is more to blame for the disruption in the home, due to her attitude towards her husband, and even her children, as she knowingly turns them against heir father, probably sighting the fact that he ruined her life, however, it was entirely her own fault. ” One could spend hours arguing on who is to be blamed however the use of stream of consciousness is more significant.
Lawrence uses this technique explore relationships and as a means of criticizing traditional views of the family as an “perhaps unit. ” Through stream of consciousness we see that the Morel family is rife with conflict and different from the traditional family unit. Sons & Lovers has been popular since the twentieth century because it addresses themes that man struggle through generally. The abuse of authority and effects of power. The the complexity of mother-son or father-daughter relationships which may branch from the Oedipus complex.
Questioning of historical events such as industrialization and the impact it had on man in the past and man today. The relations observed in family units and the topic of family relationship in its entirety. D. H Lawrence 1913 novel may be an archetype to the notion that characterization is not the sole success to effective thematic exploration. Lawrence uses characterization to examine power, foreshadowing to explore the Oedipus complex, diction to inquire into industrialization and stream of consciousness to observe family relationships.
The use of more than one stylistic concerns to explore themes is effective and shows the diversity of the literary piece.