Simply, it means that humanity is born with nothing without the human nature, the natural qualities and ways of behavior that most people have, due to the absence of God who is considered to define the mankind and give the human beings meaning and human nature. Since humanity faces the world without a dependence on God, we create who we are In form of actions. Thus, In creating ourselves, we create values and virtues and there are no preexisting virtues to guide us.
I believe that Sartre thinks people have no obligation to comply with certain ethical standards or religious beliefs. Meanwhile people are free to choose, and thereby responsible for what they choose. But Sartre also indicates that humanity is condemned to be free because in choosing for himself a person chooses for all men. In other words, since each individual is also expansible for all human beings, the human beings are not absolutely free to choose and act. However, the problem why each individual is responsible for all human beings comes out.
As what Sartre explains in Existentialism and Humanism, commonly to value something or in sense of choosing something is to think It as good, but nothing Is better than good for all men, so what Is good for a person In the present circumstances would be good for anyone In the same circumstances. Therefore, I conclude that Sartre anti-hero Is opposed to theism and traditional morality, but has a strong sense of individualism which emphasizes an individuals redeem, actions, and responsibility for his or her own actions as well as the others.
Likewise, Campus The Stranger and The Myth of Sisyphus are atheistic but contain a strong resonance of Campus philosophical concept of absurdity that describes humanity futile attempt to find rational order where none exists. Campus believes that individual lives and human existence in general have no rational meaning or order. However, because people have difficulty accepting this concept, they constantly attempt to identify or create rational structure and meaning in their lives. Eventually, the sense of absurdity occurs. Muralist Is the protagonist and narrator often Stranger.
He Is emotionally indifferent to others, even to his mother and his lover, Marie. He also refuses to adhere to the accepted moral order of society. After Muralist kills a man, the Arab, for no apparent reason, he Is put on trial. However, the focus of Muralists murder trial quickly shifts away from the murder itself to his mothers funeral represent a serious challenge to the morals of the society in which he lives. Actually neither the external world in which Muralist lives nor the internal world of his thoughts and attitudes possesses any rational order.
Muralist has no discernible reason for his actions, society nonetheless attempts to fabricate or impose rational explanations for Muralists irrational actions. The entire trial is such an example of absurdity- an instance of humankind’s futile attempt to impose rationality on an irrational universe. In addition, Campus holds the idea that human life has no redeeming meaning or purpose. Campus argues that the only certain thing in life is the inevitability of death, and because all humans will eventually meet death, all lives are all equally meaningless.
At the end of the novel, Muralist alkalizes that Just as he is indifferent to much of the universe, so is the universe indifferent to him. Paradoxically, only after Muralist reaches this seemingly dismal realization is he able to attain happiness. Similar to The Stranger, The Myth of Sisyphus mainly directly concerns about the absurd. Living with the absurd, Campus suggests, is a matter of facing this fundamental contradiction and maintaining constant awareness of it. Facing the absurd does not entail suicide, but, on the contrary, allows us to live life to its fullest.
Campus claims that Sisyphus is the deal absurd hero and that his punishment is representative of the human condition Sisyphus must struggle perpetually and without hope of success. So long as he accepts that there is nothing more to life than this absurd struggle, then he can find happiness in it. Therefore, I consider that Campus anti-hero is indifferent to the world, and his or her actions do not matter compared to what he or she thinks. Besides, this version of anti-hero is optimistic because as Campus mentions, he or she can find happiness from the meaningless life and strive to live.
Nietzsche The Gay Science also reveals atheism. For my understanding, the quote from the sections 25 of The Gay Science, God is dead, in fact points to some society reliance on religion as a moral compass and source of meaning- it gave order to society and meaning to life. Without it, Nietzsche suggests, society will move into an age pointillism which suggests the HYPERLINK http//en. Wizardry. Org/wick/negation o hesitation negation of one or more reputedly meaningful aspects of life. Actually, Nietzsche believes that God does not exist, therefore nihilism becomes a necessity.
He thinks that no objective order and structure is in the world except what we create like God. Thus, I think that Nietzsche anti-hero is extremely pernicious and pessimistic because the existing religious world will descent into chaos according to Nietzsche. In Edna SST. Vincent Mammals pondering Without Music, the poet laments how everyone must die whoever you are and also expresses how even though she understands this fact, she is still not resigned. The last line of the poem, I know. But I do not approve. And I am not resigned shows that Malay does not want to face up to the facts of death.
So Mammals anti-hero refuses to accept the woeful necessity in the universe in spite of acknowledging it to escape it mentally. In the poem Laws of God, the Laws of Man, Houseman says that he does not want to listen to the laws of God. He believes that if the laws of the others are different from his laws, the others should mind their own business because Just as they may disapprove of some of the actions and beliefs of Houseman, he disapproves most of their acts. He says that in order to live a fulfilling doing.
Houseman dislikes religious groups because they try to force you to believe what they believe and perform acts that are in line with their codes of conduct. It is likely that if one chooses to not conform to the laws of the land or the laws of elisions groups, he will be Jailed, hung, or burn in hell forever, and the consequences for not conforming to the rules scares him. The poem is ended with no conclusiveness in saying that whether the laws are right or wrong we must follow them simply because both God and men are powerful and force you to follow their laws.
Houseman anti-hero is cowardly and normally chooses to do what he or she dislikes if the circumstance requires or forces him or her to do so. The mankind’s free thinking contributes to diverse interpretation on one thing as a result, there are different versions of the anti-hero. These philosophical ideas have great influences on peoples actions because they are derived from how people live in the world and how people deal with different human conditions.
No doubt that the anti-hero might more or less negatively influence a person, the society, or even the world, we cannot negate such existence, however. In fact, a feasible anti-hero is accepted in real life if he or she does not endanger the others. For me, I believe that Sartre version of anti- hero is the most feasible in real life because his existential principle on responsibility of the all men greatly restraints him or her to do evil things. Campus anti-hero is dangerous because what he thinks matter more than what he does Justifying ones evil actions.