Actors in Policy Formulation and Two Actors
For example, for the sake of welfare, the government comes out with policy to build low cost housing so that all people can afford to own a house. Another example of Inaction by government is in he Issue of giving free education. Dye(1972) defined public policy as whatever governments choose to do or not to do. POLICY FORMULATION In order to create a policy, there few steps to be followed. Policy formulation refers to the crafting of alternatives or options for dealing with a problem.
It may also be defined as the development of policy alternatives for dealing with problem in the policy agenda. Or in other words, the development of effective and acceptable courses of action for addressing what has been placed on the agenda. For example, the policy formulator is concerned with developing a proposed course of action to educe the number of high school dropouts or lessen the volume of federal paperwork by using electronic medium via email or using recycle or draft paper. Who are the policy-makers?
Policies are made (I. E. , they are formulated) by a wide range of players called policy-makers. In most countries, public policy-makers are usually elected officials or their appointees. Here, there are few groups or actors formulate their proposals on what they believe to be right solution to the problem such as governmental agencies, legislators, Interest groups, Nags, Cobs, the general public, outside the countries,specific regional and world blocks, private sector such as banks, Mass media &: etc.
In the private sector, policy-makers are Coos, Boards of Directors and other top-ranking corporate officials. Policy-makers usually are influenced by special interest groups (I. E. , entities that do not have the power to make or enforce policy themselves, but who influence development of a particular policy for their own interests or for the interests of third parties). Special interest groups include lobbyists, political groups, individuals, corporations, donors, Nags and many others (Ninja 2000).
A second group important In setting policy consists of technical advisors or policy analysts; they advise and Inform policy-makers on alternative options, and likely on the effects of those alternatives. In democratic societies, a third group that Influences decisions Is the general public, who elect policy-makers. Firstly, the first actors in policy formulation is the Legislators. It is our elected members of Congress provide the voice for legislation as it works its way through Congress.
Typically, bills are introduced by a member or small group of members. In Malaysia, we have Parliament who makes the policy and laws. The members were elected by people through election to represent them. They will propose a bill and go through few reading before it became a policy and law. They will consider every aspect in order to satisfy the need and benefits the country. For example, Environmental Policy and Natural Resources Protection Policy were gazettes after being discussed and debated by the legislators. Secondly, Special Interest Groups .
Special interest groups are coalitions of people and organizations banded together by common beliefs on policy decisions. Working together, these groups have he ability and power to inform and influence the development of policy through correspondences with legislators and their staff. While we often think only of the negative side of special interest groups, they do also serve an important role in keeping policymakers informed. For example, World Wildlife Fund Malaysia (WFM), Federation of Consumers Association (FOMCL) and etc. Are the groups who seek for creating certain policy.
This happens because those who participate in the legislative process do not willing to develop precise guidelines due to lack of time, interest and information. Rule- making is significant because seldom, if ever, will an adopted policy action, such as a law, encompass all of the necessary details of how, when, and where the policy is to e implemented. Due to this power, the bureaucracy enjoys considerable discretion in interpreting the actual intent, method, and scope of a policy decision.
The real power of bureaucracy lies in its ability to define the details of the policy and the details that will affect the method of implementation. Administrative agencies often are given broad and ambiguous statutory mandates that leave them with much discretion to decide what should or should not be done. For example rule making which are proposed rules, interim rules and final rules. Bureaucracies are the organization. As institutions and their responsibilities have become more complex, so too have the bureaucracies established to carry out government-directed objectives.
For example, the government staff who follow standard of procedures in work, policeman who arrested the criminals, etc. Secondly, an actor in policy implementation is also the Legislature. Legislative bodies, collective decision-making units of many individuals elected by voters in district or states, have prominent roles in the policy making process. These days, the legislative body involves in implementation of policy by coming up with or drafting specific laws f putting policies into effect.
This may be in terms of reducing the agency’s discretions by specifying the deadline for some actions and stringent rules or requirements may be incorporated into the policy. For example, the report that accompanies many policy bills contain explanatory details of how a policy should be implemented. Other examples include is senatorial approval and legislative approval, which must be secured before administrative action can be taken. That is, legislative veto gives legislature the authoritative power to exercise control over what is being one by the administrative agencies in implementing policies.
CONCLUSION The actors can be the same entity however can be differentiate through their scope of duty and work. Those actors play an important role in order to develop the country. Realize or not, we also play the role as actors whether we formulate or implement the policy. We can be the pressure group who seek for certain action and we also work as policy implementers. Thus, we must work together in order to achieve the objective to ensure the development of the country and we also can live and harmony.