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In Class Simulation July Crisis
Europe on brink of war Immediate Conference of Great Powers to Convene on 26 July 1914 Brussels, Belgium On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Castro-Hungarian Empire, was assassinated while visiting Sarajevo in Bosnia-Herringbone by Serbian nationalists. The Austrian government blamed Serbia for harboring terrorists and sent the Serbian government an ultimatum that Serbia rejected. This set Into motion a series of communications across the European alliance networks.
During the month f July, European heads of state debated whether to engage In war for a variety of reasons including the need to quell domestic discontent, the need to obtain long sought after goals such as colonies, and the feeling that European tensions would eventually lead. By the end of July all of Europe was poised on the edge of war. The telegram above is a call to you to convene and possibly avoid war. Up until July 1914, various conflicts had flared up and then been put out via Great Power negotiations. In this exercise, we will see if the onset of WWW might have been averted.
We will host a fictitious July Crisis Conference In Belgium on 26 July 1914. Pay attention to dates! There has already been an exchange of telegrams between Austria-Hungary and Serbia but no official declaration of war. Each tutorial group will be divided into five “country teams,” corresponding to leading actors in the July Crisis: the Castro-Hungarian Empire, the German Empire, the Russian Empire, the united Kingdom, and France. Schedule for Simulation: Tutorial 1, Week 3: Choose groups Tutorial 4, Week 1 1 : Submit group country report and prepare conference agenda Tutorial 5, Week 13: July Crisis Conference
By Monday, 17 November 2014, 8 pm, submit group self-assessment to tutorial instructor Components of Simulation Grade: Group country report: 30% (Further instructions below) Group Self-Assessment: 10% (Further instructions below) Instructions for Group Country Report Due: In Tutorial, Week 11 Max Length: 1000 words* In Week 1 1, your team will meet with the other country teams to set the agenda for the “July Conference”. In preparation for the agenda-setting meeting in Week 1 1, your group should write a two-page report.
You should submit this report to your tutorial instructor in Week 11 at the beginning of class. It is fine to keep an extra copy for your group as you negotiate. Any reports handed in after class will incur a 5% penalty. This written agenda will count towards 20% of your simulation grade. The following items should be included in your report: l. Brief country background including geographic location, alliances, and political and economic situation. II. Position Regarding European conflict both in general and for 1914. Ill. Objectives: What would your country ideally like to achieve at the treaty conference?
This section should prioritize your objectives (what’s most important- hat’s least important) and briefly explain the purpose of each objective. You may structure your objectives as a list as long as you explain each point. ‘V. Strategies: What are your negotiating points? Your group should think through its objectives and what issues can or cannot be negotiated. Also, explain your approach to negotiations. For example, what can your country bring to the negotiating table (either in terms of current or future guarantees) and which other countries might be most persuaded by your position. * Provide the word count for your report.
Instructions for Group Self-Assessment: Due: By email, Monday, 17 November 2014, 8 pm Max Length: 500 words to reflect on the process and outcomes of the conference. Do an honest assessment of how your country team performed at the conference – what you achieved, what you didn’t achieve and why! The assessment should be closely related to the objectives and strategies listed in your Group Country Report, although it can include the gains or losses, twists and turns that you had not expected. The assessment is your chance to let us know how your team attempted to outwit, outplay and outlast the other teams to achieve your country’s goals.
The assessment should be signed off by each member of your team. General Notes: EACH member of the team will be responsible for contributing to their group’s efforts to prepare and present a case to secure their country’s objectives. During Week 13 each tutorial group will stage their own mock conference during tutorial hours. Since we will have to condense several months of negotiations into only two hours, the teams will also have a preliminary meeting in tutorial during Week 11 to hammer out an agenda of the specific issues to be discussed.
In preparation for this meeting, ACH group will need to bring a report on objectives and strategies. Students will be marked on the basis of their reports, individual contributions and on the overall success of their country team in achieving their objectives. During the simulation, students should be guided by their own understanding of the situation leading up to the July Crisis of 1914 and of their country’s long- and short- term interests. Explore the possibilities that were open to these states at the time, and do not feel constrained to follow the decisions or actions of the historical participants.
Be creative but also remain true to historical considerations: You must produce an outcome whether a peace treaty supported by at least four of the Great Powers or a declaration of war. You must do things the government you are role playing considered doing at the time, and you cannot do things they never would have dared to do. (For example, Russia would not agree to force Serbia to acquiesce to Castro-Hungarian demands) You do not know what is going to happen after 1914; it has not happened yet. Country teams should meet as frequently as possible once formed.
Once students eve done some background reading, their first task will be to divide the burden of the work by particular themes (egg. Domestic political issues, international diplomacy, economics, territorial expansion, etc. ). You may need to allocate more than one person to a given theme, depending on your nation’s special interests. Also, make sure you are aware of the interests of other nations at the conference, as you may be able to utilize common interests to form alliances etc. Too much authority in any one individual. For example, your members may take on a particular character role (e. E person plays Tsar Nicolas or Kaiser Wilhelm II, etc. ) but be careful that this person does not end up with all the work on the day of the simulation. Otherwise, you may choose whichever strategy works best for your team: e. G. You may choose to adopt historical personalities for each of the team members or simply to be anonymous delegates of your country team without reference to historical personalities. The important thing is that ALL group members share the work load from preparation through final presentation. Some References to Get You Started: Check RPR for our module.