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Psy Final Paper
I will discuss what area of the brain Is affected by this disorder, what the causal factors, the associated symptoms of this crosier, the neural basis, and finally about what drugs could help treat this disorder. In the second part of this paper, I will discuss the two case studies that have to deal with Anorexia and Anxiety. With these case studies, I will be considering what type of relation they have to the nature vs.. Nurture issue. Also I will tell about any drug interventions would be helpful for them and what the effects of those drug interventions could be.
Schizophrenia is a severe brain disorder that interferes with the normal brain functions. This disorder usually strikes people in their late adolescence or early adulthood, even though this disorder could hit anyone at anytime. Schizophrenia can trigger many deferent symptoms in a person. Some of these symptoms would include paranoia, delusions, hallucinations, and the lack of motivation. The major problem with schizophrenia Is that If this disorder Is left untreated then It could affect the ability to Interact with other people, to think clearly, and to manage one’s emotions.
A person is diagnosed with schizophrenia if they have a persistent combination of any type of function impairment and that symptoms have being occurring for a period of six months (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The first area of the brain that is affected by schizophrenia would have to be the temporal lobe. From what I understand a person who has this disorder has smaller temporal lobe structures. Studies done on temporal lobes have found out that a person’s hippopotamus and magical are reduced in size.
The hippopotamus is the part of the brain that has to do with short and long term memory, and the amazedly is responsible for arousal and the emotional states of people. Another part of the rain that Is also affected Is the preferential cortex, which has to do with the dopamine levels In a person. An Imbalance of these levels will cause a person to have some type of cognitive problems and will also cause the problems In the brain to form long term memory. Another part of the brain that will be affected is the limbic system and this disorder could be angry one minute and crying about something the next.
There are plenty of theories that have been considered about what the causal factors are for people who have schizophrenia. There is a very strong bit of evidence that this disorder is caused by genetics. Normally this is from the fact that a very close relative has been diagnosed with this disorder, so the chances that a person will get this disorder are very high. Also if a person has some type of trauma or stress in their early stage of life with the combination of the genetic influence then that will trigger the development of this disorder in a person.
Another theory would have the fact that people who suffer from schizophrenia have higher levels of dopamine in their bodies, and as I said before is from the fact that the preferential cortex of a person has been damaged. The reason why this theory is so highly agonized is from the research that has been done on Parkinson disease. People who have Parkinson use a drug called chlorinating, that is a know receptor blocker, and it helps binds the DO receptors, which has to do with hyperactivity.
Since this drug helps with blocking receptors, it has been used to help people with schizophrenia by blocking the dopamine receptors within the brain and that in turn calms a person down. When looking at the drugs that treat people who have schizophrenia, we have already seen that chlorinating is used and helps control the dopamine levels in a person. There are also some other drugs that help control this disorder and with the help of family and friends, people who have this disorder can leave normal and healthy lives.
These drugs are normally a combination of antispasmodic, antidepressant, and anti anxiety, which are then used to address the entire range of symptoms that a person may experience (Growl, 2008). The problem with taking these medications, Just like with anybody who takes antibiotics, is that once a person starts to feel healthy then they will stop taking the medication. If a person does this then the symptoms will start to come back and the person will have o start on the medication again, but this time it may take longer for the medication to kick in than previously.
Also a person will more than likely stop using the drugs if the side effects are too severe for that person to handle or even if the drug has no real effect on his or her symptoms. That is why a person who has this disorder has to be monitored at all times to make sure that the drug therapy that they are on is appropriate for them (Growl, 2008). Another drug that also seems to work on this disorder is called Cellophane, and this drug has shown to have the best responses room all of the new drugs that have been placed to the market to help fight this disorder.
With all antispasmodic medications, Just like with this one, there could be major side effects that could arise within a person. These side effects would include central nervous dysfunction, sedation, visual disturbances, gastrointestinal complaints, skin disconsolation, reduced ability to sweat, and the possible allergic reactions (Bailey, 1998). All of these side effects will differ in severity and duration of occurrence, which is why close monitoring a person with this disorder is highly recommended. Now let us talk about the second part of this paper that has to deal with the case studies.
The first case study that I would like to discuss would have to be the one dealing with Anorexia. In this case study, we find out that Beth was raised as a normal child in a well-balanced home. The problem though started gaining weight and becoming fat although her weight was normal for her height and age. This is very common among girls during this period because they are starting middle or high school and what you look like will help you get into different social clubs and make you fit in better during that person’s school life.
The problem with Beth though is that with this weight loss, that she experienced, helped her to become thin but it still did not help her with her self-image, no matter how much she lost she continued to believe that she was still fat. As I stated before, this is very common among teenage girls because they see things in magazines and on the television that states that in order for women to be attractive they have to be thin. So the girls start to lose weight to make them more attractive, but what they are doing really is hurting themselves since these weight losses are unreasonable and most of the time untenable.
People often develop this disorder if their personality exhibits highly controlled, rigid, or obsessive behaviors ( Panel, Sandman, & Lehman, 2000). There is confusion about what the causes of this disorder are, but it seems that both the positive and the negative incentives surrounding foods have not been made clear to people who have this disorder. Anorexics are generally been obsessed with food, normally spending inordinate amounts of time in food preparation, thinking about, or even talking about food (Panel, Sandman, & Lehman, 2000).
The problem with anorexics doing this is that they seem to associate food with weight gain, instead of food keeping them healthy and active. With anorexics thinking this way, they see the food that they eat as putting more weight onto their already skinny bodies and they then have to come up with ways in order to try and lose that weight before it starts to do any damage to their bodies. Also with this disorder, it is not Just the person hurting themselves by what they are doing but they are also hurting their families. The reason is that they are letting their families watch them starve to death.
When looking at the nature vs.. Return issue, we see that Beet’s genetic makeup could put her at risk for this disorder. The genetic makeup off person helps to understand why some people can contract this disorder more easily than other people. When looking at the nurture side, we can that Beet’s family and social environment both play a role in the fact that she contracted this disorder. When trying to figure out if pharmacological methods will help treat this disorder, we find out that they will not because these methods have little to no effectiveness when dealing with anorexia patients.
Methods normally used to help with this disorder are hat of antidepressants, which inhibit morphogenesis and 5-HTH uptake (Barbaric- Marseilles, 2007). These antidepressants are know to have a side effect that causes weight gain, so anorexia patients normally will refuse to take the treatment because of that fact (Barbaric-Marseilles, 2007). The second case study has to do with Tom and his anxiety disorder. He is an engineer, happily married, and is the father of three children and by all accounts Tom’s life is stable and satisfying.
The problem though is that Tom worries about his perceived health, money, and Job responsibilities, and has been going on for over six months now. With this in mind, we realize that Tom exhibits all of the criteria that the American Psychiatric Association has set up to diagnosis this is disorder. They are that he is excessively worrying about his health, even though he is physically fit, worries about his finances, month time period (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).
The symptoms for this disorder are normally muscle tension, headaches, hot flashes, nausea, and fatigue. With him worrying so much about things, Tom’s sleep cycle is now off and he is irritable and he has a very difficult time concentrating. When looking at the nature vs.. Return issue, we see that genetics do play a significant part in this disorder because Tom could have received his constant worry about certain things from his parents. It is also been found that fear and anxiety are guided by different brain mechanisms.
The emotion of fear is directly regulated and connected to the amazedly and anxiety is connected to the hippopotamus (“Fear and anxiety: A simultaneous concept analysis”, 1999). Also nurture has a role in anxiety because the reason people do worry about things is because of their family and social The treatment for this disorder is usually in the form of the drugs environment. Painlessness’s and serotonin, which help to reduce the level of anxiety in a person. Even though these drugs do work, they are also very addictive so the patient must be watched closely.
Also some known side effects of these drugs are dizziness, nausea, and motor activity disruption. So in conclusion, we see that each and every psychiatric disorder is characterized by its own set of unique symptoms and they can range in severity from being very mild to being extreme. Some known causes for these disorders can and do include genetics, brain damage, and environmental problems. People who have these scissors suffer a great deal of personal distress and the treatments for these disorders can vary from person to person.