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Melissa Reyes Assignment Number

University/College: University of Arkansas System
Date: November 21, 2017
Words: 4464
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Melissa Reyes Assignment Number

But, as they were continuously observing the class, they finally had a problem at hand. The Teddy Bears’ class (3 – 4 years old students, nursery level) had difficulty in identifying letters (I. E. B & d, p & q, m & n, etc. ). Through this problem, we would like to focus on letter recognition (sound, form, ND structure of the letter) of the students and enhancing them to be able to improve their alphabet knowledge. With this, we will be enhancing their alphabet knowledge by implementing activities that will make use of play dough making them more interested and knowledgeable of letter recognition skills.

Variables of the Study: Write definitions of what you will focus on the study. These definitions should accurately represent what the factors, contexts, and variables mean to you. Since we would like to enhance the letter recognition skills of the children, we would eke to implement intervention activities that will mainly focus on the use of play dough. Letter recognition skills’ is the ability to identify letters quickly. Students when exhibiting letter recognition skills must know the sound, form, and structure of the specific letter (Otto, 2008).

With this, we would like to mainly focus on letter recognition skills, for students to quickly identify letters through its form, sound, and structure (I. E. Uppercase and lowercase). The study will involve 3 – 4 years old students from the Polar Bears’ class of COP The Fort. These students will be given letter permissions to their parents for us to duly include a maximum of 8 students, and a minimum of 5 students. The age group is a perfect range since these students are emerging readers wherein confusion of letters are still part of their development process.

Research Question(s): Pose a question that will focus your study. Be sure to include what student learning will occur and what instructional practices will be implemented. 1 . How did this intervention improve the letter recognition skills of the students? 2. How do students respond to the activities prepared with play dough? Learning Outcomes: What specific student learning will occur? After the implementation of the intervention, students from the said Teddy Bears’ class must exhibit excellent letter recognition skills on the different worksheet activities for the post – assessment.

Students are expected to show a good understanding of the different “confusing letters” that they mix up. Intervention or Innovation (Instructional Focus): Describe the specific instructional practice(s) that will be implemented and studied. Specify when and how the practice will be implemented. The intervention we will be conducting is merely from the reactions of students when hey are able to get play – dough for center time. We chose play dough since it is an open – ended material which will consist a good outcome for students to construct their understanding of the letters.

Open – ended materials, as Interiors have said, improves the cognitive development of children (Gordon & Browne, 2004). Through it, they are able to feel the structure, form, and be able to associate the sound of the letter through the play dough letters constructed. Play dough – this material will solely help the students be able to make their own letters and form them into what they think of the same later. Place mats or Activity Sheets – will serve as a helping tool in play dough construction, so that students will have a guide in doing their own play dough letters.

Sources of Data/elements (Data Collection): Specify the data sources that you will collect that are aligned to the classroom problem. How often will you collect the data? Since we are mainly focusing on play intervention, specifically using play dough, we have come up of different sources we may apply to collect data from the students that we are going to use for our study. Data Source 1 : (What & How? ) that each student will be engaged with. Each of us will have 2 – 3 students to observe every meeting to be able to take note of improvements, progress, and other context that will support our intervention Data Source 2: (What & How? Video Records and Picture taking (Play dough intervention, Pre & Post Intervention Assessments) – This Data source will help us in reviewing what had happened and will make a good document in assessing whether students were able to understand letter recognition through using the open – ended material play dough. Data Source 3: (What & HOW? ) Pre-test & Post-test – Both of these assessments will serve as our comparison whether our intervention was effective in enhancing letter recognition amongst the nursery students.

Pre -test and post – test assessments comprise of an activity that is a part of their day – to – day activities in school. Data Source 4: (What & How? ) Everyday Checklist – The checklist is to determine whether students are able to identify the correct letters said and showed by the teacher. Through this, checklists will serve as an indicator of improvement of the child from pre intervention, during intervention, and after the intervention. Data Analysis: Describe how you are going to analyze your data We chose to use a qualitative design for this study.

Using the anecdotal records, checklists, and picture & video recording, we could compare the progress and improvement of the child before, during and after the intervention. This will comprise of narratives, and results that will mostly pertain to the comparison of the pre and post intervention data we will be gathering. Support: What support will you need from your colleagues? The directress will be the one to assess our proposal before we could implement the said intervention in the Teddy Bears’ class. She will be the one to appoint us in the section where students will be able to be helped by our intervention.

Also, we will need some guidance from our thesis mentor and the Educational Leadership Management Development to suggest and criticize our paper to maximize the effectiveness of our study. Using play dough Letter recognition is the ability of the child to determine the sound, form, and structure of the different letters of the alphabet (Rosenberg, 2006) It is essential to enhance this skills since it shows that many of the literacy and emergent reading skills are more effective when they are able to determine and distinguish all the utters with ease.

It is said that the best predictor of reading and spelling fluency is the children’s letter and sound recognition. (Hamlin, 2004; Scarborough, 1998; Stretchiness, Fletcher, Francis, Carlson, & Forman, 2004). This is one way to increase the child’s potential in practicing his or her own skill in recognizing the different letters in the alphabet or on the child’s name. Acquiring letter recognition skills will help the child promote their potentials of emergent reading abilities.

Letter name and letter sound knowledge predict subsequent literacy skills independently of there important predictors including phonological awareness and oral language (Burgess & Longing, 1998; McBride-Change, 1999; Wagner, Tortures, & Earshot’s, 1994). With each context, students are able to enhance their potentials of emergent reading through enhancement of letter recognition as the basic form of emergent reading. Learning the different letter sounds, forms, and structure can stabilize the child’s understanding and recognition of letters.

Preschool and kindergarten students with poor knowledge of letter names and sounds are more likely to struggle with learning o read and be classified as having reading disabilities (Gallagher, Firth, & Snowline, 2000; O’Connor & Jenkins, 1999; Torpor, Poisonous, Lasso, Keeled, & Letting, 2006). As said by Stanchion (1986) and Tortures (2002)”At the least possible outcome, these children tend to fall further behind their peers in reading acquisition, leading to gaps in spelling, reading fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension skills. With this, our task is to make the students able to administer letter recognition skills to develop early language and literacy acquisition. The researchers will be using play dough activities intervention in a school located in The Fort. Creative Play Corner provides early childhood education from 1 -6 h years old students. These students are divided into sections called: Gummy bears (1 – 2 years old), Teddy Bears (2 – 3 years old), Polar bears (oh – 4 year old), Whiz Bears (4 h – 5), and Prep Bears (5 – 6 h years old). These levels vary from how well the students are performing in each level.

The researchers were intimidated with the school since it really shows developmentally appropriate materials, setting, and atmosphere. The school is able to administer good quality education by integrating learning and fun. Its beliefs are more on the social skills and progressive skills of the children. They integrate both to produce fun. Play is their focused activities, and as said by Whisky (1966) “Play is essential in child development. ” One of the investigators’ problems is finding a recurring error in the school that needs enhancement for the benefit of the child’s development.

As the researchers continuously visited and did practicum, there was an identified problem which was letter recognition and interest in listening to the activities given by the coacher. Letter recognition was one factor that needs more focus on student’s and Gordon (2004), it is necessary for early learners to be exposed to the rich world of print – environment since it will give them the opportunity to acknowledge the importance of print in the society. This way, students are not only exhibiting print awareness but also administer emergent reading skills through recognizing the basic form of print literature.

To enhance their letter recognition, the researchers will use print out activity sheets or placemat, to enhance student’s literacy skills and be able o show the importance of letter recognition. This will enhance their capabilities of recognizing different letters from the alphabet and determining its importance for emergent reading skills. By making them more interested with different kinds of print using play dough, it will boost the opportunity to make them interested with reading since letter recognition is the fundamental milestone to reading (Gordon & Browne, 2004).

This will not only enhance letter recognition, but will also enhance their experience in constructing their own knowledge out of the play dough. The intervention that the researchers will be using will be “Using play dough and activity sheets or placemat in enhancing letter recognition. ” With this, the Teddy bears will be able to use their knowledge of the different letters from the alphabet each meeting with every new letter or words that will be given to them. With this process, it will show that their emergent literacy will be developed not only through speech but also through reading.

Although a lot has been said about letter recognition, we still had a hard time looking researches on letter recognition. It has been said by Phillips, et al. , in 2008 that there is a lack of empirical evidence regarding letter- knowledge instruction. Through this, our task is to contribute to the educational society that letter knowledge is one of the important things that we must focus on to make students ready for the emergent reading skills. This study will help on adding up resources on letter recognition.

It will give way to a new strategy that will enhance the skill: letter recognition. Given the benefits of letter recognition, it is necessary for educators to enhance them and be able to improve the student’s perception of activities by making it fun through play dough. This will give them the interest in learning letters not only through songs but also through fine motor skills; at the same time enhancing their letter recognition using play dough. This will give the school an opportunity to open doors to positive change amongst the students’ literacy skills.

Statement of the problem To further help the students enhance letter recognition skills, it is important for the different classroom materials to be part of learning. One of which is using the play dough in improving recognition and fine motor skills. Another material that will strengthen the study is the use of activity sheets (placemat sheets with letters), to help the interest and speedy recognition of students from the different letters presented to them. Through these materials, it both promotes student’s skills and knowledge (on alphabets and letters) since it opens to innovative ideas and constructing original masterpieces.

This way, students have the potential of knowing the correct letters that correspond to its sound, form, and structure. Letter recognition means recognizing the letter instantly providing each concept of alphabet knowledge. With these insights, the researchers would like to focus on letter recognition skills of the students? 2. How do students respond to the activities prepared with play dough? Through this, we may derive how effective our action research was and we may be able to administer the needed practices for the learning child.

Rationale The purpose of this action research is to motivate and enhance emergent readers in developing letter recognition and interest in listening skills, through different instructions and using play dough in accommodating student’s independence as early learners. By giving weight in recognizing letters and using play dough as a learning tool, students are able to acquire and achieve their recognition, fine – motor, and letter knowledge skills. The researchers will focus on the Polar Bears (Kinder students), ages ranging from 3 – 4 years old.

Students from this class are expected to be interested with singing the alphabet, and should be used with the previous lessons in the alphabet. The researchers would also like to take this opportunity to focus on this topic since it was seen that not a lot of related literature supports the process. This is to help enhance the instruction in requiring usage of play dough in enhancing student’s letter recognition. This would not only help the students, but will also give a chance in improving the curriculum of different schools that focuses on literacy and development.

Review of Related Literature Letter Recognition The alphabet is composed of different letters varying from vowels and consonants. These letters are part of the learning process of each early learner. Knowing the alphabet during the kindergarten stage is an essential part of learning in the early ears (Diamond, Geared, and Powell, 2008). Letter recognition shows early signs of emergent reading since students are able to identify the different sounds and written forms of letters (Roberts & Neal, 2004). Supporting letter recognition is normally associated with written activities. (Whitehorse & Longing, 2001).

In enhancing letter recognition, educators must find ways to make learning fun through different activities. It is one of the most essential skills that students must encounter during their early learning. Letter recognition as defined by Bradley and Stall (2001) s the ability of the child to distinguish the name, shape and sound of the letter. It is also the ability to name and recall each of the letters. Burns (1999), explained that “By the end of kindergarten, children should be able to name most of the letters of the alphabet, no matter what order they come in, no matter if they are uppercase or lowercase.

And they should do it quickly and effortlessly “. The skill of naming and recognizing the letters of the alphabet should be acquired by children when they graduate from kindergarten because it would be a big help for them when they take he next level in education. Children should learn to recognize letters effortlessly so that it would be easier for them when to begin to read. Learning about letter names is essential because it helps the child understand the alphabetic principle. The alphabetic principle is the connection between letters and sounds because most names of the letters contain the sounds that those letters represent (Lyon,1997).

If the connection between the sounds and names of the letters. In order to do this the child should learn on how to translate grapheme (letters) into phonemes (sounds). Without knowing the letters of the alphabet, the skill of translating grapheme into phonemes would be an impossible task (Whitehorse & Longing, 2003; Young-Suck, et al. , 2010). When the child acquires this ability then he would learn that there are connections from what he or she is learning. This skill of making connections could help the child for the next lessons in literacy.

Joel (1991) said that comprehension on the relationship between the letters and sounds is needed because it serves as a prerequisite to the learning of effective word identification. The ability to easily recall ND name each letter should first be enhanced in order for the learning of identifying words to be easier. Joel (1991) also stated that the primary difference between the strong and poor readers is their capability of identifying words through the use of letter sound correspondence. It would be easier for the child to identify words when the child associates letter sound correspondence to the new words learned. Familiarity with the letters of the alphabet is a strong predictor of the ease or difficulty with which a child learns to read” (Adams,1990; Share, Jorum, Mclean, and Matthews, 1984;National Reading Panel, 2000). When a solid foundation on letter recognition is not built, children will have difficulty in dealing with the other facets of literacy (Bradley,2001). Recognizing letters is the first skill that should be developed by children so that learning would come easier when the other facets of literacy are taught.

The skill of being able to recognize and distinguish letters is an important skill that every child should acquire because without this skill it would be difficult for them to begin reading. For the children to develop this skill, it is the educator’s role to roved meaningful opportunities which would allow the child to interact with letters. Letter recognition as discussed above, is seen to be an important factor in learning to read. Beginning readers would have a hard time to become skilled readers when they have not fully understand the alphabet (Eerie,2003).

Learning about the letters is needed because letters serves as the basic units of written language (Eerie, 2003). The skill of recognizing letters can be seen as a necessity before learning the other aspects of literacy that is why the enhancement of letter recognition should be done. Studies which made use of kinesthesia play activities in teaching Letter Recognition In East Tennessee, a study by Clung (2000) was conducted because her students are having difficulties in recognizing letters based from the Variance Test. Students who took part in the study were divided into control and experimental groups.

The objective of the study was to see if applying thematic instruction with added tactile instruction will help the students in recognizing letters. For the experimental group, the students received 20 minute sessions each week for 4 weeks. Students who are a art of this group received thematic instruction with tactile activities by making letters with playgroup, yarn, shaving cream, shape blocks, sand, finger paint, tippets do, and letter puzzles. They were also asked to recite the name of the letter while they were tracing it. On the other hand, the control group only had thematic instruction without any tactile activity.

At the end of the intervention, the students were tested on their recognition of those letters that were taught by showing flashcards of uppercase and lowercase letters. However, the findings of the study hose who had tactile instruction and those who did not. According to Clung (2000) the result might have been caused of not having the same degree of difficulty in using the letters for the control and experimental group. This study shows that each letter in the alphabet has its own level of complexity which could affect the results of a certain study.

In turn, the only way to make the study valid is by giving letters that have the same degree of difficulty. The study conducted by Gallagher (2003) made used of visual, auditory, and kinesthesia methods in helping to increase letter and mound recognition in kindergärtners. The study which was entitled “Zoo-phonics: Can it help to increase letter/sound recognition? ” made use of zoo-phonics, which is a clear and organized multi-modal phonics program. The participants of the study were 26 kindergarten students from a school in the metropolitan area of Portland. The study lasted for 6 weeks with sessions given 3 to 5 times a week.

To determine the student’s knowledge on letters, an interview was made and the researcher asked the student to say the name and sound of the letter or name a word that begins with hat letter, this served as the pre-test for the study. The same method was done for the post test. The data for the study was collected through the use of observations, interviews and anecdotal records. According to Gallagher (2003) only five students met the benchmark for letter/sound recognition before the use of zoo-phonics was implemented but after the completion of the study about 65% of the students have met this benchmark.

The results of the study showed that every student except for one had an increase in letter and sound recognition over the whole course of the study. This study shows that the use of more than one type of strategy in teaching letter recognition can be a big help. Vision and touch are connected in one’s schema in learning symbols as said by Pigged and Inhaler (Clung,2000; Through the use of visual, auditory, and kinesthesia methods, as used in the study of Gallagher, the different senses of the child are tapped and developed.

Also, Kefir (2000) said that “By incorporating verbal, visual, tactile and kinesthesia activities” students are able to remember all the lessons they tackle. Allowing the child to be a part of the lesson will allow the child to e engaged through his own experiences and learning. Learning that children learn letter recognition best when interaction is involved as discussed in the previous paragraphs, we implemented a kinesthesia activity which will allow them to interact with the letters.

We used playgroup as our instrument in improving letter recognition skills particularly in identifying the letter’s structure, form and sound. Foundations of Letter Recognition According to the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NANCY) the development of the alphabetic principle is the goal for the preschool years. It is expected that children in their kindergarten years are proficient in distinguishing and naming letters. Children are also expected to know about the letter-sound correspondences (NANCY, 1998).

The skill of recognizing letters is expected to be developed by children during their early childhood years. Children should not only be familiar with these letters, but also they should learn the differences in the sound and form of each letter. A requirement made by Head Start (U. S. Department of Health and Human Services & Administration for Children and Families, 2003) is for expected to identify at least 10 letters by name. The Early Reading First and Reading First programs have also established specific goals for the child’s knowledge on letters and letter-sound correspondences to increase (U.

S. Department of Education, 2002; 2003). This shows expectations have been made and children are required to be knowledgeable on the letters of the alphabet. Also, most states in the US (e. G. , Florida Department of Education, n. D. ; Massachusetts Department of Education, 2001), have included in their curriculum frameworks the skill of letter writing, naming letters and basic sound knowledge in their standards in literacy for regeneration and kindergarten students as required by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002.

The skill of recognizing letters has been given much importance because it serves as the basis in developing the child’s literacy skills. Goals and expectations have been set and kindergarten students are expected to know the letters of the alphabet. Theories on Play Play has been the foundation of each preschool child (Smith, 2010; Bigotry,1966). As said by Whisky, play has been one of the essential tools that helps build cognitive development. It is important that play is part of the everyday activity of a child. The concept of understanding and meaning even comes from pretend play.

This shows that play is an important factor in developing skills especially language development and symbolic representations (Smith,2010). According to Pigged and Hall (2004), “when children are engaged in play, they are using their memories to assist to connect their play to pre-literacy skills such as naming and symbolic thought”, the skills of naming and symbolic representation is enhanced which helps the child in his literacy skills. Scratch and Spoke (2006) said that “During play children participate in reading and rating experiences that develop the literacy skills they need for formal reading instruction” (p. 16). Not only does play help developed the child’s naming and symbolic representation abilities but it also builds their foundation on more complex literacy skills such as reading and writing. Children also learn to create new meanings by relating their past play experiences with their new experiences while playing (Paterson,2009; as cited in Tsar, 2008, p. 518). Through this, the child learns to build connections with his previous learning to the ones that he is currently earning.

This shows that play is not only having fun, but is part of experiential learning where interaction, language, and development takes place. While Whisky focuses on the benefits of play on the development of each child’s cognitive skills, it is believed that Pigged has another contribution of how he perceives play in the classroom. Pigged believes that allowing the child to be engaged in play will let them understand concepts. Through play, children will get to watch and imitate the situations that are happening in his environment.

When children are playing, they re given the opportunity to imitate characters and they are also given the chance to come up with their own scenarios. Pigged believed that through trial and error, the cognitive abilities of the child will be enhanced (Mooney, 2000, p. 63). “Cognitive skills that are related to a child’s reading and writing abilities may be developed through make believe play’ (Paterson,2009; Tsar, 2008, p. 518). With make believe play, the cognitive abilities of the child will be enhanced because the child learns to deal with certain situations. Also, Pigged notes that assimilation and accommodation are the

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