This is often called paraphrasing and you can use tools like Turning to help you learn how to avoid plagiarisms text and how to rewrite or paraphrase text. Paraphrasing To paraphrase is to restate in different words. You might paraphrase the plot of a television program or a story about a friend to another friend, and you naturally do this in your own words. When writing up research, this restating must be done carefully, also in your own words. Usually paraphrases are also summaries, I. E. , shorter than the original, but not always, depending on how you want to use the material. How do we paraphrase?
In general, we find a passage of writing in a book, newspaper, or Journal or on the internet expressing ideas and/or information we want to use in an essay or a report. We take care that we understand the whole of it and its parts thoroughly. Then simply write what you have read in your own way, in as short or as long a version as is appropriate for your piece of writing 1. If the material is new or difficult for you, find synonyms, that is, words that mean the same thing, for the key words in the passage, or comparable expressions for the key ideas and facts in the passage then write your paraphrase. . You do not need to use the same sentence structure or length as the original. 3. You do not need to use all the material in the original?take what you need. 4. Check that you have not used key words from the original. (Short rods like ‘and’ ‘in’ even ‘because’ don’t count. ) 5. Some words, often technical words, do not have many synonyms, like internet provider (internet server? Can you think of others? ). 6. Other words are always used, like competitive advantage (meaning, leading to better profits or better products) because Porter and others have made it shorthand for a complex business concept.
Then you may wish to use the term, even though the original text also uses it. Do this carefully, using Judgment. Why do we need to paraphrase? 1 . In your essay or report, only your style of writing is appropriate, giving you wineries and showing that you take responsibility for the final version, including the way you have used material from other writers. 2. Paraphrasing ensures that you have really understood the material you are using. 3. To paraphrase you need to review your vocabulary and add to it.
You need to compare and contrast what you are reading with what you already know and thus to connect this new material to your other knowledge?it’s good for your brain, for intellectual growth. 4. Paraphrasing also ensures that the writing style in your piece is consistent, which makes it much more readable?it will earn higher marks, therefore. . Paraphrasing, in the end, is easier than, say, patching together bits from other writers (which is illegal, in any case. ) You can write what you want when you want to. 6.
Paraphrasing is the method communicate your contribution to your field of knowledge efficiently by doing it the way your reader expects: it’s like knowing a red light means stop, but green means go. 8. Both the words and the ideas and information in a published piece of writing are the intellectual property of the author(s). It is illegal to use this property in a published work by you without the permission of the author(s). 9. You must cite your resources: in the Harvard System of Citation and Referencing, that means to put the author’s surname and year of publication in round brackets at the end of your paraphrase of the work. . Referencing and Citation Style Various styles are used when preparing references for different academic disciplines check with your tutor or advisor that you are using the preferred standard for your subject. When preparing a report, extended essay or a thesis you will need to consult the published literature; books, Journal articles, conference reports, electronic resources, etc. Your completed written work must acknowledge the sources room which you have obtained your information. This handout provides guidelines on how to cite (refer to) those sources in your final text.
What is referencing? A reference list is a record of relevant works consulted during the preparation of an essay, project or dissertation. It must include all the publications quoted from, paraphrased or referred to in the text; all works consulted should be mentioned in the text if they are of specific relevance to the topic covered. The term “referencing” encompasses both citations within the body of your essay and a list of all consulted works. Why is it important? Information obtained from any source, including the Internet, is subject to copyright law.
You must acknowledge any source that you refer to in your assignment, both within the text of your assignment, and at the end of it (by including a list of references). Referencing your sources also enables the reader to view your sources and follow your essay as well as acknowledging the works of others on the subject. You should also know that if you use sources but don’t cite them either within the text or in your reference list, you can be accused of academic dishonesty, which is a errors charge. What details are needed for the full reference list?
These are the publication details of the works themselves, which vary according to the type of material used: book, article, thesis, video, etc. Where does the list appear? The list should come at the very end of the work, before the appendices. It takes the form of an alphabetical listing (by author) of the works consulted. If more than one author has the same surname, initials determine the alphabetical sequence. If more than one work by the same author is given these should be arranged with the earliest published work first.
Works by more than one author are entered under the name which first appears on the title page and are listed after works written or edited independently by this author. Citations in Text Citations within the text direct readers to the reference list at the end of the text. The author’s surname, year of publication (and page number(s) if appropriate) should appear in the text. If the author’s name does not form part of the statement in the Example There is evidence (Smith 1990, pop) that the statistical analysis is unsound. If the author’s name forms part of the statement put the date and page number in rackets.
Smith (1990, pop) cited evidence that the statistical analysis is unsound. If there are two authors, the surnames of both separated by “and” should be given before the date. Smith and Jones (1990, pop) proved that the statistical analysis is unsound. In the first citation of a work with three to five authors, give the surnames of all authors (order in which authors are given is that of the title page), separating the names of the authors with commas, the last comma followed by “and”. Smith, Jones and Jones (1990) made various claims that the statistical analysis was unsound.
Subsequent references should be in abbreviated form, the surname of the first author followed by et al. Smith et al. (1990) have provided a range of evidence to show that the statistical analysis is unsound. For a work with six or more authors, give only the first author’s surname followed by et al. When citing the work of one author found in the work of another you should acknowledge that you did not consult the original source; Supporting evidence appears in a study by Black (cited in Smith and Jones, 1990, pop). “Cited in ” indicates that the reference to Blacks study was found in Smith and Jones.
Include only Smith and Jones in your list. For articles in edited works cite under the name of the author(s) of the paper not under the name of the editor. For works published in the same year by the same author suffixes “a”, “b”, etc are added to the year. Both date and letter are used in citing the source. Remember to use the date and the letter when including the reference in your list at the end of the essay Smith (AAA, pop) has provided evidence that the statistical analysis is unsound. To cite a website with a known author use only the name of the author followed by he year the page was last updated.
The National Aids Manual (2001) suggests that vicar may be taken more than twice a day When the author of a website is unknown or when citing a homepage give the web address (also known as the URL) of the site followed by the year the page was last updated. Over mm people expressed an interest in UK nurse training in 1999 according to the English National Board http://www. N.B.. Org. UK/ (2001) Quotation marks are used to enclose direct quotations from speech and writing. Quotes of less than three lines can be included in the text.
Smith (1990, pop) concluded that “there was a fundamental discrepancy in the original data”. However quotes of more than three lines should be separated from the text and References are arranged alphabetically by authors’ surnames. Separate surnames with commas; use initials, NOT first name; use the ampersand “&” not “and” to separate surnames. [Note that ampersands are not used for referencing-in-text]. For printed books and articles use capitals for the first letter of the first word of the title and proper names; use small letters for all other words.