Will it increase the realization of such expectations. The State Bank itself does not expect the government to meet the four percent deficit to GAP target for PAYOFF. The FYI fiscal deficit could exceed 5 percent of GAP. Moreover, meeting the FRR tax collection target of RSI. 1667 billion would require a 25. 6 percent growth which seems unlikely’ (UP). Why raise interest rates then? Pakistanis relatively high interest rates compared to other countries in the region such as India and China have failed to have a positive impact on private inflows.
Both foreign direct and portfolio investment have fallen during FYI and the growth of Kbps external reserves is due to realization of Coalition Support Fund commitments and MIFF trance releases. Needless to say this cannot directly be attributed to changes in interest rates. The increase in the NFG of the banking system has been quickly neutralized by the State Banks open market operations. The State Bank has thus struggled to ensure that improved liquidity conditions in the money market do not lead to a reduction in short turn interest rates.
Yet it does not use monetary policy to reduce these supply side constraints. Instead it Jacks up interest rates to reduce the consumption demand of the poor and the investment expenditure of the private sector. The State Bank is pursuing an minnesinger monetary policy for higher interest rates are invariably passed on to consumers in the form of higher commodity prices. The State Bank is accommodating higher government consumption (which is not affected by interest rates) through private consumption and investment expenditures strangulation.
Macro economic “stability’ is being purchased at the cost of higher poverty levels, increased unemployment and a greater system wide incapacity to replace obsolete production technology. This increased incapacity of the industrial sector to service its operations is graphically illustrated by the rise in non performing loans up from about RSI. 250 billion in January 2008 to almost RSI. 500 billion today. Market based monetary policy has failed. Under this policy regime the State Bank sector investment.
Business Administration, Karachi Abstract The purpose of the research was to determine the effect of learning disabilities on adaptability skills. After a detailed literature review, it was hypothesized that the non learning disabled students will have higher adaptability skills than the learning disabled students. The sample comprised 80 learning disabled and 80 non learning disabled students. The learning disabled group included 51 boys and 29 girls. The non learning disabled group included 41 boys and 39 girls. The learning disabled group was conveniently selected room remedial schools and schools with screening psychologists.
The non learning disabled group was randomly selected from normal schools of upper socioeconomic strata. In order to gain information regarding age, sex, qualification, parents, income and any other psychological problem Demographic Variable Form, and for measuring adaptability skills the adaptability subspace of the Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory, Youth Version was administered. For statistical analyses of the data, t-test was applied through.