Midterm Essay

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Midterm

As most people use he term, it is a big business application. In today’s corporate environment, enterprise applications are complex, scalable, distributed, component-based, and mission- critical. They may be deployed on a variety of platforms across corporate networks, intranets, or the Internet. They are data-centric, user-friendly, and must meet stringent requirements for security, administration, and maintenance. In short, they are highly complex systems” (“Chapter 1 : What Is an enterprise application? ” , 2014).

With horizontal systems you keep adding more systems to help with the increases in oh add another system with Node to help with the load. Vertical systems references that instead of adding more systems, you get better machines to handle the load. So each client will play a different role. You will have one server that handles Authentication and another for Node (Miles, 2011). “In computing a legacy system is an old method, technology, computer system, or application program; of, relating to, or being a previous or outdated computer system.

Often a pejorative term, referencing a system as “legacy” often implies that the system is out of date or in need of replacement. A more recent definition says that a legacy system is any corporate computer system that isn’t Internet- dependent” (“Legacy system”, 2014). 2. Describe object-oriented analysis (0-0) and objects. Define class and properties. Define methods. Define messages. Object-oriented analysis “views the system in terms of objects that combine data and process.

Whereas Structured Analysis treats processes and data as separate components, object-oriented analysis combines data and processes that act on the data into things called objects. The objects represent actual people, things, orientations, and events. Compared to structured analysis, object-oriented phases tend to be more interactive. Some of the advantages that object oriented analysis offers are that it integrates easily with object oriented programming languages such as Java, Small talk, C++, and Perl. Programmers also like 0-0 code because it is modular, reusable, and easy to maintain.

In other words, a major advantage of 0-0 designs is that systems analyst can save time and avoid errors by using modular objects, and programmers can translate the designs into code, working with reusable aerogram modules that have been tested and verified” (“Object-oriented (0-0) Analysis I System Development Method I System Design Development”, 2012). “In object-oriented programming, a class is an extensible program-code-template for creating objects, providing initial values for state (member variables) and implementations of behavior (member functions, methods)” (“Class (computer science)” , 2014).

Whereas properties function as data storage for an object. Within an object-oriented database methods are referred to a procedures or tasks, such as a cash register adding on sales tax at the end of the sale for the total amount u. Messages are requests to execute and run a method, such as a grocery store clerk who requests that the sales tax be added to all taxable items. The message will access the database and all taxes will be added on non-food items (Stair & Reynolds, 1992, p. 220). 3. Define structured analysis and system analysis life cycle (OSDL).

Explain why structured analysis is called a process-centric technique. Design (SD), are methods for analyzing and converting business requirements into specifications and ultimately, computer programs, hardware configurations and related manual procedures. Structured Analysis became popular in the sass and is still used by many. The analysis consists of interpreting the system concept (or real world situations) into data and control terminology represented by data flow diagrams. The flow of data and control from bubble to data store to bubble can be very hard to track and the number of bubbles can get to be extremely large.

One approach is to first define events from the outside world that require the system to react, then assign a bubble to that event, bubbles that need to interact are then connected until the system is defined. This can be rather overwhelming and so the bubbles are usually grouped into higher level bubbles. Data Dictionaries are needed to describe the data and command flows and a process specification is needed to capture the transaction/transformation information” (“Structured analysis”, 2014).

OSDL describes a process for planning, creating, testing, and deploying an information system. This applies to software and hardware configurations, separately or combined together. “The System Development Life Cycle (OSDL) is a series of six steps that a project team works through in order to conceptualize, analyze, design, instruct and implement a new information technology system. Adhering to a OSDL increases efficiency and accuracy and reduces the risk of product failure” (Morris, 2014).

In structured analysis processes and data are treated separately while with object- oriented analysis combines them both. This is considered a process-oriented process because “Represents the system in terms of data and the processes that act upon the data. The system development is organized into phases, with deliverables and milestones to measure progress. The Systems Development Life Cycle (OSDL) waterfall model typically consists of five phases. Iteration is possible among phases. Although structured analysis evolved many years ago, it remains a popular systems development method.

Structured analysis is based on an overall plan, similar to a blueprint for constructing a building, so it is called a predictive approach” (“Structured Analysis – System Design Development”, 2014). 4. List basic guidelines for system development. Why is it important to include users in the development process? Suggest other ways in which involving users can enhance successful development. The traditional system development life cycle is composed of 5 steps: 1 . Systems Investigation: Identify potential problems and opportunities in light of the goals of the business. . Systems Analysis: “What must the information systems do to solve the problems”. Coming up with a solution to the goals and problems in step 1 . 3. Systems Design: How can we create a system to align with our solution? This is where you select the best possible solution. 4. Systems Implementation: This is where you create or purchase the system you have decided to go with in the design phase. You sure the system is working as planned, and to make any changes needed so that yester can update for potential business needs (Stair & Reynolds, 1992, p. 520).

It is important to train users on the new system to see if it working for all business needs. While developers and architects have the basic outlines of how the system needs to perform for basic use, the users are the ones who use these systems on a day to day basis. They might need the system to work in other ways that might not have been discussed and the sooner the developers and architects know how the users want this system to perform the easier it will be for them to create the best system for all business needs. I am firm believer that bringing the users in at phase one if the best possible outcome for the company.

Users have an insight about the day to day uses of these systems. Ask them what they like about their current systems, what they don’t like. What tools could be added to help increase productivity and decrease repetitive actions. If they are included in the brainstorming session of the all the phases I think that your team will better be able to come out of the door with a system that is improving their current processes. This could also decrease the number of updates he team may need to make after deploying the system. 5. What is a Prototyping Model? What steps are involved in it?

What are its potential downsides? Prototyping is “an interactive approach to the systems development process in which, at each iteration, requirements and alternative solutions to a problem are identified and analyzed, new solutions are designed and a portion of the system is implemented” (Stair & Reynolds, 1992, p. 521). Prototyping runs in iterations in the first round, the steps include; determine requirements, analyze alternative, specify design, and user review. This is the same process until the last iteration where the last step which is user review is replaced with changeover.

There is also a systems developed initiated prototype approach which has a few different steps. The process is as followed: 1 . ) Investigate and analyze problems sufficiently to develop workable solution, 2. ) develop prototype, 3. ) put prototype into operation, 4. ) refine and modify prototype. Know you keep completing steps 1 through 4 until you have resolved all problems and then proceed to step 5. ) Complete component or system (Stair & Reynolds, 1992, p. 522). The downside to prototyping is that each iteration builds on the previous one.