The Development Including Communication
Pl Describe the development, including communication, of babies and young children in the first three years of life. The expected pattern of development consists of physical factors E. G. The Fine and Gross motor skills, Emotional and Social development and also the Intellectual and Language development. Physical – Birth – 1 year When an infant is born they should learn how to use their reflexes like sucking, swallowing, coughing, gagging and blinking to survive. As soon as children are born they cannot make their hands and feet work together, also their eyes are not co- ordinate properly so they look as If they are cross eyed.
Leading up to four months children should be able to lift their head on their own and be able to look right to leave. As soon as an object is placed their hands they clench their hand and squeeze it. They track moving object with their eyes as It is moving across the room and also the career that is In the room with them.. A parent or career may notice their baby waving their arms and kicking their legs with a lot of enthusiasm. A baby can also at this age bring both hands together, open their fists and also be able to play with their fingers.
At 8-12 months children are able to sit up by themselves without any support room the career, they can crawl up stairs or on flat surfaces themselves also they are able to walk slightly but with support by someone else. Cereal, fruit, vegetables and other flinger type foods. Emotional and Social A newborn sleeps on average of about 17-19 hours a day but they do this in short periods during the day. When an infant is upset or is in discomfort a familiar voice of one of the baby’s careers can soothe them. Children are able to play such as peek-a- boo and clapping their hands.
They enjoy being tickled and Jiggled about also. At 8 months the child is starting to recognize their family/careers and also starting to agonize their reflection in the mirror. Infants begin to become attached to a toy or a blanket. They start to keep their careers/parents in sight of them and also they will begin to show assertiveness by pushing them away and lastly they begin to understand what the word ‘no’ means. Cognitive The cognitive development of a newborn they show the early characteristics of their personality and they also begin to recognize their primary care givers.
They begin to 1 OFF amused by the sound of toys that make noise and also noises from other people and the different voices they hear. Children anticipate being fed so when they see food insight they tend to open their mouth. If a caregiver waves or coughs the infant may imitate their actions. They will start to focus on one toy or object, if it is thrown on the floor the infant will continue to look for the object. At 12 months the child will fully understand most things that the caregiver is saying to them like they will under stand words and instructions and be able to respond to them.
When they are handed a toy they will immediately drop the one that they currently have and take the new one. They will understand how to use a comb, fork or spoon e. G. By being handed DOD on a spoon they will know to put it into their mouth. Language Newborns will mostly respond to their caregivers by crying or sometimes by making other noises. If they hear different noises like music or familiar voices they will either become still or turn in the direction of the noise. Some infants can associate sound with certain objects; they will also make different sounds themselves like cooing and gurgling noises.
They will cry when they need something or laugh loudly when the career makes a certain noise or does something they find funny. If a family member is calling them they will begin to recognize their own name. If they hear a certain sound they will start to repeat it over and over again also if they are told to Wave’ or ‘clap’ they will understand what you are saying and start doing so. At 12 months the child should have spoken their first words already; they also should be aware of the caregivers name and react to it when they hear it. Acting verbally around family/ careers should have started.
These different types of development are milestones in the child’s life by a child reaching these milestones they are following a normal development pattern. If a child were not reaching these milestones, as they should be normally it would be ladle ‘delayed development’. Expected patterns of development from 1 – 3 years Physical – By 14 months the infant is able to walk with support from the career, at 22 months they are able to more or less walk on their own without any help then by the time they get to 2 years they are able to run.
Children at these ages are able to eat small amounts of solid food and also they eat frequently. They’re beginning to use their pincer grip and can scribble using crayons and are able to stack blocks, also they are able to throw and kick a ball. They are able to stand on their tiptoes and jump with their feet together. At these ages most children show an interest in being toilet trained using a potty as they feel uncomfortable with wet or soiled nappies. Using their pincer grip once again they are able to take their toys apart and put them back together, also able to screw and unscrew lids.
At this age they are more active Social and Emotional – From 1-3 years children are very self centered and also very possessive over their belongings and have great difficulty sharing their toys etc; children want to be pretty much independent at this age in doing their own thing around the house but there are mostly dependent. Their mood swings are very rapid, they can be happy and laughing one minute then sad and crying the next. They mostly enjoy playing by themselves at this stage or they’ll play beside children sometimes but not always fully bonding.
They begin to show fears that are increasing, and then they are continually asking for parents. Expressing new emotions is a big one between these ages e. G. Jealousy, affection, pride and also shame. They begin to become very assertive by saying “no” to their parents. Fantasy play is a big part in a child’s life and from about the ages of three children play it most which is short and simple. At this age children become frustrated easily so sometimes they will do the opposite of what they are told to do. They become more self assured around 3 years but also need to be reassured every now and again.