Korean and French cultural differences
Companies have begun to expand into other continents, investing into foreign countries, placing factories and employing coal workers to fill these workplaces. We see the benefits from this globalization, with foreign Investments supplying work for locals, as well as the obvious benefits of a company expanding Into a new country, such as new, previously unreduced markets and decreases in shipping costs. However, with globalization more demands regarding management. When dealing with foreign employees, there are areas of local cultures that need to be respected.
This report looks at the management issues that come with globalization, specifically looking into foreign investment into France ND South Korea. These two countries have France is the largest country in Western Europe and one of the most advanced countries In the world. They show this leading country in the European Nations. With a population of 63,460,000, it boasts a GAP of $2. 712 trillion, the 5th highest country GAP. South Korea is situated in East and has transformed itself in to a functional democratic country, despite it’s chaotic past with Japan and on going feud with North Korea.
The country is beginning to get more involved in international relations, following them hosting the 6-20 summit in 010 in their capital, Seoul. As well as this, they are in line to host the 2018 Winter Olympic Games and have gained a temporary membership on the UN Security Council this year. South Korea has a population of 50 million and currently holds a GAP of $1 . 163 trillion. Placing it as the 12th highest country GAP. 2. 1 Time focus Time focus is the concept of how a country culture is towards the completion of tasks. There are two different approaches to this area of work: monochromatic and polyphonic.
A monochromatic approach to work involves the idea that a worker would Ochs on one specific task right until completion before moving on to a different task. As well as this, they tend to focus less on people and relationships, and more on written information. On the other hand, in a polyphonic culture, People will prefer to work on multiple projects during the same time period. They also are more social than monochromatic cultures, relying less on detailed information and more on gathering knowledge from involvement of other people.
A polyphonic culture is much less likely to be punctual with appearances and are much more vague about miming regarding schedules. France, regarding time focus, are a polyphonic cultured country “The French are highly polyphonic: they love to do several things at the same time and they are good at that… ” Another outcome of France’s polyphonic culture is that they prefer to take an approach of arranging plans before they have full knowledge of the topic in question, and then tend to adapt their previous plans to suit the new information as it comes in. South Korea is also known to have a polyphonic culture.
When regarding business in South Korea, it is expected that angers will care more for their employee’s general consensus and happiness than they will for the task that is being asked of them and the time in which it is to be carried out. South Korea and France, both being polyphonic, have a lot of similarities regarding their time focus orientated culture. However, South Korea has begun to move along the spectrum into the direction of the monochromatic culture, due to the increase in foreign investment. We can see that subtle differences are beginning to arise such as stricter deadlines in the workplace. He importance of their history for the business. France is regarded as a ‘past’ time orientated country. This means that they have strong views on the history of their country and carry traditions and historical mentality through the business, aiming to conserve it. In this set up, it is more desired for a company to make slow transitions into modernized methods in order not to lose sight of the company’s origins. South Korea, have a completely different approach and are very future orientated when regarding the subject, according to the Hefted national culture dimensions which scored them at a 75 for long term orientation.
Rather than take morals from historical acts, future orientated cultures tend to look mainly ahead. This results in company’s making plans that look further into the future and normally consist of a long period of time to undergo certain projects. The concept of space refers to different levels of their own comfort zone. It can be used to refer to the privacy of a person’s belongings or the amount of space they prefer between them and someone else in a face-to-face conversation. Both France and South Korea prefer to maintain a private orientated culture in this section.
France is quite common to neglect any idea of an open door policy in the workplace ND is very rarely known to mix their social life with their work life. In some cases it is actually found insulting to mention family in the workplace. South Korea are also private orientated in this area, however have a small difference in which it is common for them to favor relatives when employing. Both South Korea and France scored high in the Natural Culture Dimension regarding power, which places them as a hierarchical society.
In this sort of society, employees would be expected to respect and agree with every decision made by their employers and it would be unheard of for someone of a lower status in a equines to argue against someone of higher recognized status. An example of this is shown in Malcolm Gladden’s book ‘Outliers’ where he writes about how a plane, piloted by South Koreans, crashed due to the fact that the other crew members felt that they were unable to warn the pilots of the potential crash due to their hierarchical culture as these crew members were of lower status than the pilots in question and could not morally disagree with their decisions.
Regarding Greet Hypotheses Dimension’s of Natural Culture, France scored very high regarding Structure, which places them as an Individualist culture. Individualist cultures prefer to set tasks and goals that can be achieved solely by one person. Relationships are not at a high priority in an individualist culture and it is common for friendships to change frequently, proportioning relationships with relatives. And managers are expected to commend employees on there individual performances.
South Korea scored a low score in this section, which places them as a more collectivism country. In a collectivist-orientated culture, group work is preferred over individual projects. It is encouraged for people involved in groups to conform to he majority decision of the group and not to openly disagree with the decision. “South Koreans culture is generally group-oriented. Asserting individual preferences may be seen as less important than having a sense of belonging to a group, conforming to its norms, and maintaining harmony among its members. As well as this, a collectivist culture has a society that focus’ on aspects of popularity, with clear signs of in-groups and out-groups. A person’s belonging to one of these groups is taken into account when regarding hiring and firing. France is a high-context communication culture. This means that in high-context communication a large part of the meaning lies in the physical context, which includes facial expressions, tone of voice and gestures. As a result, the message itself carries less information. South Korean culture is also regarded as high-context communicative.
It is uncommon for South Koreans to use a direct ‘no’ as a response. Rather than do so, they are more likely to delay any final decision and give ambiguous answers instead. 2. 7 Action Action deals with a culture’s approach to working. There are two different sections of this area, doing and being. The French culture, in this scenario, is very ‘being orientated. This means that French culture believes that in a workplace, there should be heavy focus on the experience of working at that moment in time. This is emphasized in comparison to the ‘doing side of this area.
A ‘doing culture tends to look for a final outcome from their work, an achievement to work towards. There are two sections for the subject of competition, competitive and co-operative. Competitive cultures strive towards company profit mastication, and in doing so, tends to neglect aspects such as quality of life and selflessness. Co-operation, however, takes a more caring approach. Both France and South Korea rank low on a scale measuring their competitiveness. This places them as a co-operative culture, normally regarded as a feminine culture.
In this culture, profit is wanted, similar to a competitive culture, however it doesn’t take priority. Instead, priority is given to the general health and happiness of employees. When looking into globalization and the expansion of a business into a different country, these 8 dimensions are key for the company’s management as it can show should approach the management style of that business. The management tasks can be split into five different categories. These are directing, organizing, control, staffing and planning.
The next section of this report is aimed to look at each individual area and then relate them to the information we have previously gathered on France and South Korea. This can result in having a better idea about the steps needed in the management in order to respect the employee’s culture and also achieve increased efficiency and an inviting, working environment. Within the practice of planning there are several areas where France and South Korea have similarities. Firstly, the aspect of power shows that both countries have a hierarchical system.
This means that plans are created, discussed and decided on solely by the managerial staff, with employees from lower tiers having no insight or being able to bring any ideas up. The cultural orientation of competition also shows that South Korea and France share similar beliefs. Both countries are not very competitive and strive to co-operate internally, putting less importance on the speed of carrying out tasks and achieving goals, and put more effort into the maintenance of the relationships between those involved in the planning process.
A final area that both comply with is the focus on the history of it’s country. Because of this, planning should be focused on the continuation of the traditions that the country has been brought up with. Plans should be made for a more long-term period to continue the slow transformation of the country. It’s clear to see that both countries have similar culture beliefs, which would make the action of planning, with individuals from both countries, quite simple and more likely to result in mutual agreements. On the process of staffing, France and South Korea continue to hold a large amount of similarities.
Looking at time focus, both countries are polyphonic cultures. This means that when they are looking to hire employees, both countries believe in looking for long-term employees who they can build relationships with over the long time period. This is opposed to the idea of short-term employee contracts where they would have a specific employee work on a specific Job for a small period of time. Another area to look into is the subject of competitiveness. France and South Korea share more similarities in this aspect as they both have a cooperative culture.
Regarding staffing, this means that hiring is less based on the individual references of candidates, but there ability to conform to groups and their teamwork related skills. Another area where there are similarities is the aspect of action. France and South Korea have both been identified as cultures that believe in ‘being’ action rather than doing, meaning that rather than staff being solely evaluated on the completion of the tasks set to them, they are also evaluated on different aspects. Examples of these include the employee’s abilities in social and team situations as well as their personal values and philosophies.
Overall there proceeds unlikely to cause is issues. . 3 Organizing South Korea and France continue to have similarities, regarding organization. However, they do also have their differences. One of their similarities focuses on the prospect that they both believe in a ‘being approach of action. The effect of this approach when looking at organization is that it means there is less importance on the necessities of clear, instructive steps but more on the ideas that the employees share the same ideas on what is wanted for the future of the company and also what is expected from them.
Another aspect regarding organization is space. This is another area where these two countries share similar beliefs, as both France and South Korea believe in more private space. This means that organizing tends to be centered more on the goals and aims that is being asked by the company, rather than relationships of those workers involved. However, there are a few differences. One of these differences is the idea about structure in the work place. South Korea leans more towards collectivism than individualism.
This means that companies are more enthusiastic to spend more resources and time of group-based activities, where s France is more of an individualistic culture and will do the opposite and focus more on tasks and projects for individuals. This disagreement may be a cause for concern as it may strike up some disagreements. On the process of directing, France and South Korea continue to hold a large amount has the affect that there is it is more important for employees to be flexible and able to change plans last minute. Another area to look into is the subject of power.
France believes the same cooperative ideas that South Korea believes. Regarding directing, this means that managers should act in a way that emphasizes there higher status to heir subordinates, they would be expected to keep a lot of control over their employee’s actions. Another area where there are similarities is the aspect of action. France and South Korea have both been identified as cultures that believe in ‘being action rather than doing, this means that managers are chosen over certain characteristics, such as their integrity and personal values, rather than what they have achieved regarding business.
Overall there proceeds to show no signs of any disagreements regarding the two countries cultures and unlikely to cause is issues. The final of the five sections is control. In this section, again we see multiple similarities between the two countries. One area that can be looked at, when analyzing control, is time orientation. South Korea is a future orientated country and as a result, this means that there is control set to make sure that company goals and aims are associated to long-term projects that focus on the adaptation of the company to their past.
As a result of this, companies tend to control goals and aims so that they are continuing the expansion of the company, yet they are still following traditional morals and beliefs. Other areas of control, the two countries seem to Greer on. Regarding the aspect of competition, both countries are cooperative, meaning that although reaching goals and increasing speed is important, their culture believes that more pressure should be put on the control of increasing the efficiency of teamwork as well as the relationships involved throughout the team.
Another area that both countries agree on is space as both the French and Koreans, respect their right for privacy. In their private orientated environment, managers have a physical gap between them and their subordinates, more than often it is a different building level. Due to this split, managers need to have more detailed, accurate methods to record the performance of their employees. Overall the two countries’ cultures agree on certain aspects of control but at the same time, disagree with other aspects. This may cause issues regarding management over both cultures.
Having taking all of the different information, it is clear to see that South Korea and France hold a lot of similarities. Both countries seem to have the same cultures for a lot of different aspects. Both are a polyphonic, private, ‘being action, hierarchical, High-context and cooperative cultures. However there are a few differences, with South Korea having a collectivist structure whilst France’s is more individualist. As well as this France put a lot of focus on its historical backgrounds whilst South Korea are looking forward in time and creating new history.
This results show that it there is a lot of connecting points that South Korea and France have which makes the assumption that creating a management process that works for both countries would not be as complicated as previously anticipated. However, the two areas, in which there are differences, could proceed to create areas of conflict between the two countries. In order to deal with this, compromises will need to be made that can combine certain aspects of both cultures in order to create unity.