According to the vTrinidad and Tobago N

The research topic Is based upon the Impact of the biotic factors on community properties In the aquatic ecosystems of bolt La Vega and Carbon Swamp. The blotch factors to be Included ate salinity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, phosphates, nitrates, pH, and temperature. Aquatic biotic factors have become a prudent Issue In these ecosystems affecting the abundance and distribution of species as well as feeding relationships as seen in food webs and food chains. In order to try to solve this problem, coordinated activities were to be carried out within both investigative areas inked to observation and collection of primary data.

This was done by conducting various experiments on site, thus giving practical field work evidence. Also, secondary data was used in order to validate and compare with primary data found. This secondary data was derived from other reports and research done by other individuals. According to the Trainload and Tobago Newsman, In an article written by Cola Belle, on Tuesday may 29th 2007, the Carbon Swamp Is the largest area of mangrove In Trinidad and Tobago at approximately 40 square miles.

The article states that the wampum, like any other wildlife habitat, is a sensitive ecosystem whose stability can be affected by even small changes in climate and senseless human interference. Litters of Styrofoam, coolers, plastic bottles and paper bags can be seen along the banks of the canal of the number nine channel. Water in the swamp area is brackish in nature that is of a higher salinity level than fresh water, but not as salty as sea water. At this time salinity levels are higher than usual.

Mangroves are able to acquire the fresh water from the swamp but some fauna cannot cope with the lack of fresh water easily such as the spectacled caiman which retreats farther Inland as salinity levels rise. The UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment(2005) sought to investigate the biotic water quality factors Influencing mangrove conation along the South Reproduce River, Goodness Swamp. Electromagnetic induction was used to spatially map the salinity of the water. River water was spatially tested in situ for pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, temperature and turbidity using a U-10 multi parameter water quality checker. He apparent electrical conductivity (Ca) levels were much rower in the main channels than in the side channel both in the wet and dry season. In the dry season however, saline water intrusion was very evident as salt water moved further inland. The pH and DO levels showed a mark decrease in the side channel than in the main channel of the river. Rhizome Mangle (red) as opposed to Lucubrating racemes (white) and Vicinage Germans (black) was found under adverse water quality conditions of low DO, pH levels and high levels of salinity.

The Rams Convention has made the Carbon Swamp a feature on Its list and Is regarded Internationally as a wetland of Importance. Ender natural conditions the swamp received sediment laden fresh water and overflows from the Carbon River upstream, east of the swamp, while the Guacamole River and Chinquapin River entered the swamp towards the south. Flood protection works, which began in the sass’s have resulted in an overall reduction of freshwater inflow into the swamp.

This loss of freshwater inflow has further reduced freshwater storage in the swamp and caused salinity levels to increase. In addition to saltwater penetration, the swamp receives water polluted with sewage wastewater from industry and agriculture run off. W. A. S. As study guide for “In The Know With H2O” was the last source reviewed. It is stated that pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the earths environment that interfere with human health, the quality of life or the natural functioning of the ecosystem.

Suspended sediment (TTS) Total Suspended Solids are solid materials that are suspended in the water which result from erosion from urban runoff and agricultural land etc. High concentrations of suspended solids gives water a brown color and blocks out light, thus preventing the growth of aquatic plants, reducing the oxygen in the water and kills aquatic organisms. Locally TTS values range between 1-500 MGM -1 . Conductivity is the measure of the ability of water to pass an electric current it is affected by the presence of inorganic dissolved solids in the water.

Conductivity levels in Trinidad and Tobago range between 100- 2000. PH is a measurement of the acidity or alkalinity (base) of a solution. PH is measured on a scale of O to 14. Neutral water has a pH of 7. Low pH values in freshwater are also caused by the dissolution of acids forming substances in precipitation. As rain drops fall through the atmosphere, they dissolve gaseous carbon dioxide, creating a weak acid. Pure rainfall has a pH of about 5. 6. High organic matter content in the water will also decrease the pH of water.

The presence of minerals such as aluminum or iron can also influence the pH of the water. PH range and common examples. Across Trinidad and Tobago, pH values range 6 – 9 whilst the most common value was 8. 4. This indicates that local rivers are slightly alkaline, possibly due to the presence of limestone in the area. Dissolved oxygen analysis measures the amount of gaseous oxygen (02) dissolved in an aqueous solution. Oxygen gets into water by diffusion from the surrounding air, by aeration (rapid pavement), and as a product of photosynthesis.

Oxygen levels that remain below 1-2 MGM/l for a few hours can result in large fish kills (KY Water Watch 2011). Dissolved oxygen values locally range from 0. 6 to 8. 2, whilst the most commonly recorded value was 5. 5. Low dissolved oxygen values found in the Lower Carbon, San Juan, and SST. Joseph Rivers were as a result of the release of untreated industrial effluents into these rivers. Industries contributing to the low dissolved oxygen of these rivers were; brewing, food processing, and distilling (IMAM 2001).